I have a friend called Hsieuh Wen-hwangDiscourse on the absence of Blood in the Heart 755 whose designation is Lang Chaia native of T'ung-chow, who has also studied medicine.

Before proceeding to Shantung in the 2nd moon of the 10th year of Tao-kwang, 1830, he came to pay me a parting visit and we talked upon the root and origin of the blood of man. The ancients said the heart produces blood and the spleen moves and directs the blood and others state the opposite, but who knows which is correct 1 According to my idea neither is correct. I say that the blood is the delicate juice which enters the ' blood residence' where it is converted into blood. The heart is simply the out and ingoing air road and there is no blood inside it. Lang Chai opposed my view. He said the hearts of animals contained blood, why is it that man's contains none? I replied by asking him what animals' hearts contained blood 1 And he replied that in ancient prescriptions there is mentioned the sui-sin-tanDiscourse on the absence of Blood in the Heart 757 , pills taken to cure madness. These pills are made of a species of Wickstrĉmia (kan-sui

Discourse on the absence of Blood in the Heart 759 ground to powder and mixed with pig's heart's blood and thereof the pills are made, and is this not proof that the pig's heart contains blood 1 I replied that this was an error of the ancients; it was pig's blood but not out of the heart. When the heart is cut with a knife the blood in the heart comes from the cut walls of the chest, and if the heart be not cut there is no blood within it. I have seen numerous cases of this. I have seen an enormous number of sheep killed; they cut the neck and not the heart (as in the pig.) The sheep's heart contained no blood. He said if you do not cut the heart how is it the sheep dies so quickly? I replied, the blood in the chest walls is great and flows out rapidly at the moment of cutting and afterwards all the (systemic) blood of the body flows to the walls of the chest and afterwards it flows slowly. When the blood has all flowed out the air is dispersed, and the animal dies. For example two persons fight, one injures the other, and loses much blood; the air is dispersed and the blood flows away in quantity. The injured person goes into convulsions, which the ancients called po-shang-feng, lacerated wound air = traumatic tetanus, and they used the san-feng to cure it, and the person died all the more rapidly. The ancients therefore in trying to cure one killed two; they killed the injured person and the injurer was killed in consequence. If they had understood the doctrine of the dispersing of the air and blood they would not have had recourse to the san-feng remedy but to hwang-chi and tang-shen, the root of an umbellifer as tonics to the air, and if they had cured the injured individual they would have saved two lives. When Lang Chai heard this he nodded his head and departed.

Preface to his Prescriptions

I have not discoursed on the San-chiau, the three divisions, because I do not believe in such. On the outside the body is divided into the head, face and four extremities and the blood vessels of the whole body are inside. The diaphragm divides the trunk into an upper and lower portion; above is the heart, lung, larynx, pharynx and ' right and left air doors'; all the remainder are situated below the midriff......This book is not a complete one for the cure of disease. For diseases one had better consult Wang-k' en-tang's Preface to his Prescriptions 763 work entitled Ch'ing-chi-chun-sh'eng , and if you wish to consult prescriptions the reader should look into Chow-Ping and Wang-chu-sun'sP'u-chi-t'ing

If you want to investigate the nature and properties of drugs take Li-shih-chen's Pen-t'sao (Great Herbal). These three books are the origin and root of the medical faculty. One must read them and remember them. Outside these works now specified there is the I-tsung-chin-chienPreface to his Prescriptions 768 of our dynasty; the rationale given of disease and its prescriptions are good, and Wu-yen-k'o'sbook on Epidemic Fevers, and as for the remaining celebrated doctors, although they have not seen man's viscera, their methods of producing diaphoresis and their tonic and cathartic prescriptions produce good results.

Although I have written this book I cannot say that I have produced a work. My sole object has been to correct some errors of the ancients, and I have noted a number of prescriptions in the latter half of my book in order that a little of the order of medicine may be understood. My book is not in any sense complete. If persons do not read and study books and think by reading mine to have sufficient knowledge, that is not my fault but their own.

Explanation of the Diagrams

The first twelve illustrations are those given by the ancients. Our author gives thirteen of his own.