A medical man, who was lately asked if he used massage much in his practice, replied - " Oh yes, a great deal; my butler does it." After that, one should not have been surprised to hear that the electrical treatment was conducted by his footman, and that the kitchen maid undertook the obstetric cases. Mere rubbing or shampooing is no more massage than a daub of paint is a work of art. It is not only a vicarious way of giving exercise to patients who cannot take it themselves, but it is a valuable curative agent. Lady Manners, in the Nineteenth Century, says - "The Chinese are supposed to have learnt the use of gymnastic exercises from the Indians, and the subject mentioned in the most ancient of their books is called Cong-fou, or Science of Living." The late Dr. Macgowan gives the term for Kung-fu as Kang Kung Fu or Medical Gymnastics 214 the Great Bear, and fu a charm.

The Tauists, the priests of the religion or system of rationalism of Lau-tse (500 B.C.), have always been the chief practitioners of this form of Medical Gymnastics. These Bonzes, as they are called by the French, a term corrupted from the Japanese and first applied by the Portuguese to a Japanese priest, were the early alchemists of the world, and have for centuries been in search of the philosopher's stone. In cinnabar they supposed they had found the elixir vitae. Alchemy was pursued in China by these priests of Tao long previous to its being known in Europe. For two centuries prior and for four or more subequent to our era, the transmutation of the base metals into gold and the composition of an elixir of immortality were questions ardently studied by the Tauists. The Arabs, in their early intercourse with China, thus borrowed it, and they were the means of its diffusion in the West. Kung-fu owes its origin to these same investigators, and was adopted at a very early period, by which to ward off and cure disease and for strengthening the body and prolonging life, in which it has been declared a far-reaching and efficacious system. My friend, the late Mr. Wylie, in his excellent Notes on Chinese Literature, remarks regarding Tauism that it has "changed its aspects with almost every age. Commencing with the profound speculations of contemplative recluses, on some of the most abstruse questions of theology and philosophy, other subjects in the course of time were super-added which at first appear to have little or no connexion with the doctrine of Tau. Among these the pursuit of immortality, the conquest of the passions, the search after the philosopher's stone, the use of amulets, the observance of fasts and sacrifices, together with rituals and charms, and the indefinite multiplication of objects of worship, have now become an integral part of modern Tauism."

[ Note. - The reader, who may wish to consult this curious subject along with the Medical Divinities and Divinities worshipped in Medical Temples in China, will find a series of Papers by the present writer - On Chinese Arts of Healing, in the Chinese Recorder, Vols. 2 and 3].

Besides a system of gymnastics and charms in Chinese Medicine, there are other systems, one of which deserves a passing notice. Numerous works exist on all such subjects. There is one on the Art of procuring Health and Long Life, without the aid of physicians and by means of regimen and general hygienic measures-Such things are inculcated as the regulation of the heart and its affections; and rules are laid down with regard to dietetics, business, and rest, containing many wise, useful, and quaint precepts, which, if attended to, would certainly conduce to health and longevity, but which, being persistently neglected, the constitution is ruined and loaded with infirmities, life is shortened, and the body is sorely burdened with disease. [ Note. - The reader will find one such work translated in Du Halde ].

It is the object of Kung-fu to make its votaries almost immortal; at least, if immortality be not gained, it is claimed for it that it tends greatly to lengthen the span of life, to increase the body's power of resistance to disease, to make life happier, and to make the muscles and bones insensible to fatigue and the severest injury, accidents, fire, etc. The benefit, too, the soul derives from such exercises and the merit accruing to the individual are not to be lightly esteemed. I have seen these priests subject themselves to great hardship and severe trials, without producing any impression upon them.

Having briefly sketched the practice of the art in ancient times both in the Orient and Occident, a few remarks on its practice in modern times are necessary to complete our historical retrospect.

In 1569, Mercurialis at Venice published his treatise De arte Gymnastica, in which he recorded the most important exercises used by the Greeks and Romans, and which has proved a perfect mine for subsequent writers of the 17th and 18th centuries, who derived their knowledge of this subject largely from this source. In 1740, according to M. Dally, and 1728, according to Dr. Roth, appeared in English a work by Francis Fuller on Gymnastic Medicine, every man his own physician, treating of the power of exercise in its relations to the animal economy, and its great necessity for the cure of various maladies, such as consumption, dropsy, hypochondria, itch, and other skin eruptions. This book made a sensation at the time, and it passed through several editions, and was translated into several languages.

In 1748, there were published at Helmstadt two works in Latin, entitled Dissertatio de arte gymnastica nova by Boerner, and De Gymnasticæ medicæ veteris inventoribus by Gerike. The medical world was too much pre-occupied with pharmaceutical and chemical speculations to pay attention to the Gymnastics of the Greeks, and still less to those of the Tauists, those Priests of Supreme Reason.