Pere Amiot, one of the Roman Catholic missionaries at Peking, drew attention to the subject of Kung-fu, or, as he spells it, Cong-Fou, by the publication of his Notice du Cong-Fou in 1779, in Les Memoires sur les Chinois, of which more anon. In 1781 appeared Tissot's work La Gymnastique Medicate. In 1821, another Frenchman, Londe, published a treatise on the same subject, or exercise applied to the organs of man according to physiological, hygienic, and therapeutic laws. These works merit study at the present day for the high estimation of the power of regular and methodical movement on the living mechanism which they indicate. The most important works for rational gymnastics have been undertaken on the mechanism of locomotion. In 1794 an English work appeared, by John Pugh, the anatomist, entitled A Treatise on the Science of Muscular Action, showing its utility in restoring the power of the limbs. A work by Dr. Barclay, called The Muscular Motions of the Human Body, published in Edinburgh in 1808, was one of the most remarkable, having for its object the anatomical study of each organ with relation to movement; and another on The Power of Compression and Percussion in the cure of Rheumatism, Gout, Debility of the Extremities, and in promoting Health and Longevity, by Dr. Balfour, of Edinburgh, in 1819. Various works in French appeared for the cure of deformities of the spinal column and osseous system generally, and chorea by means of pressure, percussion, friction, massage, position, attitudes, movements (active and passive), which constitute the science and art of medical gymnastics, the therapeutics of antiquity, which has had such prodigious success, principally in the deviations and spasmodic and chronic maladies against which modern therapeutics has generally recognised its powerlessness. In 1830 Dr. Koch's Gymnastics in relation to Dietetics and Psychology was published.

Numerous other works in French and other languages appeared, treating of friction, ligatures, compression, vibration, percussion, etc. Dr. Roth believes a great part of the results produced by the so-called water cure is owing to the importance of movements, in which the douche, compresses, friction, etc., have so great an influence as well by their dynamical as by their mechanical effects.

We have reserved, for the sequel of this retrospect, notice of the originator of what is now called the Swedish system of Gymastics, Ling (born 1766, died 1830). His system is based on anatomical and physiological principles;

and, in this respect, differs entirely from the Chinese, which can lay claim to no such foundation, and is therefore not calculated to produce all the curative results claimed for the Swedish system. His great principle was the oneness of the human organism and the harmony between mind and body, and between the various parts of the same body. The development and preservation of this harmony is the educational or prophylactic part of the system;

the restoration of the disturbed harmony forms the subject of the medical part. His idea, in Dr. Roth's words, was that an harmonious organic development of the body and of its powers and capabilities by exercises, considered in relation to the organic and intellectual faculties, ought to constitute an essential part in the general education of a people. He looked upon anatomy and physiology as the basis of gymnastics essentially necessary. His intention was to make gymnastics not only a branch of education for healthy persons, but to demonstrate it to be a remedy for disease. The curative movements were first practised in Stockholm in 1813. His system is now largely extended through the various countries of Europe. He arranged the vital phenomena, which are subordinate as well to physiological as to physical laws, in three orders, known as the Dynamical, Chemical, and Mechanical agents. The union and harmony of these three, combined, constitute a perfect organism.

Under the Dynamical he places the manifestations of the moral and intellectual powers; under the Chemical, generation, nutrition, reproduction, sanguinification, secretion, etc; under the Mechanical, breathing, circulation, walking, etc. He cairies out this analogy of these three fundamental agents of the vital powers in various directions, as, for example, telluric influences, such as light, heat, electricity, magnetism, etc., are embraced in the Dynamical; nutriment, medicine, poisons, etc., in the Chemical; and shock, pressure, etc., in the Mechanical. The organism itself is divided into the brain, heart, and lungs; arms and legs corresponding to the same three agents. The animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms permit of a similar analogy. Hitherto it has been principally by medicines, acting generally on the Chemical agent alone, that we have tried to preserve health and cure disease; the Dynamical and Mechanical agents have been either entirely neglected or unscientifically considered. In any discordant action of the organism, in other words, in indisposition and disease, which of the three agents must be principally acted upon, must be considered. As the chemical agent is as inseparable from the other two as these are from it, hence it must be impossible to effect a cure in all diseases solely by pure medicines which act principally on the chemical agent. Wherefore medical men frequently prescribe either exercise influencing the mechanical, or amusement, etc., acting by means of the dynamic agent. " It is as wrong," and we are now quoting from Dr. Roth, " to recommend a healthy person only to eat and drink, and not to move or amuse himself, as it is in diseases to act exclusively on one factor of the vital power." The great Sydenham, when dying, consoled those who complained of the loss of the great physician by saying - "I leave behind me three great and most important means, viz., - air, water, and exercise, which will compensate for the loss of my person."

Ling's idea of the harmonious development of the organs of the body, being the essential base of the education of the young and of the people, is a Greek idea which is found in all the writings of the philosophers. Barclay of Edinburgh in 1808, as we have shown, professed the same idea in the treatise on the muscular motions of the body. St. Paul's words in his Epistles to the Corinthians (I, XII, 24) and to the Ephesians (IV, 16), considered solely from the physiological point of view, are still to-day the most perfect synthesis of the science. M. Dally thinks it would be doing a real wrong to Ling's reputation to have him posed as the inventor of it.