The Dragon is the chief among the four divinely constituted beasts, a legendary monster depicted by Chinese tradition as a four-footed reptile resembling a huge saurian. The watery principle of the atmosphere is pre-eminently associated with it. For a notice of the Dragon King see the writer's article in The Chinese Recorder, on Praying for Rain (Volume 1, 1867).

No. 1. - The Dragon stamping the Earth, or The Stamping-Earth Dragon (and so with all the other titles).

Let both hands embrace crosswise both shoulders; fix the toes on the ground, and stamp with the heels 24 times. This is used for the strengthening of the ligaments and bones. The stamping with the heel causes the blood to circulate in heaven and earth, high and low (that is, all over the body). The blood and air thus circulating everywhere, boils, abscesses, etc., will not be produced. In this way, man can voluntarily and gratuitously strengthen himself.*

* These directions are usually in rhyme, so as to be easily remembered and committed to memory. The Chinese have no correct notion of the circulation of the blood. They speak invariably of blood and air; and, together, these words stand for the constitution. Original air is supposed to be mixed with the blood, and to be the cause of its onward movement. ( The position of the arms resembles No. 3, Medicinal Kung ).

No. 2. - The Dragon wagging his Tail.

The Dragon Series 495

Place both legs firmly together, and move from side to side like a dragon's tail, 24 times. For pacifying and making comfortable the ligaments and bones. (These results are produced by the movement of the coccyx).

No. 3. - The Dragon rubbing his Head.

Take hold of the Dragon with the left hand, and rub his head with the right hand; seize it slowly, and afterwards move it firmly; do not be afraid to repeat it any number of times. The black dragon is the liver, and the white tiger is the lungs. By so manipulating, hardness will disappear, and the dragon at the sight of the tiger will not be afraid. (The illustration is similar to Nos. 1, 18, 23 and 29, of the Medicinal Kung).

No. 4. - The Whirling - Wind Dragon.

With closed fists and head slightly bending downwards, strike out first the right hand and then the left, each hand following the other. This is in order to move the bones and muscles, and cause the blood to advance forwards, and so prevent the body from becoming weak. (The illustration is similar to that for the Third month).

No. 5. - The Dragon joining his Feet.

Sitting straight place first one leg and then the other in the opposite axilla, and with the hands grasp the opposite elbows. To cause the blood to pass down the vertebrae to the kidneys and coccyx. (The illustration, a male, is similar to No. 5, of the Medicinal Kung).

No. 6. - The Dragon shutting the Pass.

The hands to be lifted up with the palms towards heaven, and the air is thus driven up to the head. To be done 24 times; and, if the air reach to the ni-wan bone, * the organs of vision and hearing will be strengthened. (The illustration is similar to No. 7, of the Eight Ornamental Sections).

* " Mud pellet bone," so called from its containing the brain called the "mud pellet palace," and this again from a reference in the Han dynasty to an official who, with such a pellet, could close the Han Pass. (See the writer's Anatomical Vocabulary, - "Ni-wan").

215 No. 7. - The Dragon closing in the Inspired Air.

Perfect quiet to be maintained, without which the exercise is useless. To be done 81 times. To impart strength to men. (The illustration is similar to Nos. 2, 10, 16, 21, 23, and 29, of the Medicinal Kung).

No. 8. - The Dragon supporting Heaven.

The object of this movement is to cause the air to pass from all parts of the body to the coccyx. The person lies on his back, the heart is empty (free from all care, etc.), the legs are drawn up, and the hands clasped underneath, 81 times. By this kung-fu alone can the air freely circulate to the coccyx.

No. 9. - The Ascending Dragon.

The person sits cross-legged, the breath is retained and drawn into the abdomen, the mouth is closed and the tongue thrown against the palate. Prescribed for driving out cold, with the hands in the loins, and against incontinence of urine.

Inspire by the nose 90 times. If inspiration by the nose be not attended to, the passages will be blocked up; and, if the mouth be not closed, the dorsal muscles will be rendered uncomfortable; and, if the tongue be not rubbed against the palate, the air from below will not pass to the occiput, and all pass round like the flowing of the Yellow River and the tides of the ocean and go into the heart.

There are three more given to complete the dozen, forming the " Dragon Set:" - one, The Dragon taking Water; another, The Dragon fearing Fire; and The Dragon meditating on the Elixir. These, not being very-different from some others already given, are omitted.

216 The Tiger Series.

The Tiger is the greatest of the four-footed creatures, the lord of wild animals, and represents the masculine principle of nature. He lives for a thousand years. When 500 years old, he becomes white. His claws act as a talisman; and the ashes of his skin, when worn about the person, act as a charm against disease. In Tauist literature, the Dragon and the Tiger play a most important part.

No. 1. - The Mountain-Jumping Tiger.

Jump from one place to another, and then back, 24 times. In this way, the black dragon and white tiger are brought face to face, and the door of the hill (to become genii) will be opened.

No. 2. - The Tiger coming out of the Cave.

The Dragon Series 496

The person, on all fours, moves backwards and forwards, each 12 times. The muscles and bones are thus made and kept movable, the viscera enjoy peace, and the blood and veins flow regularly.

No. 3. - The Flying-Rainbow Tiger.

The two arms are stretched out together in one direction, first to the left and then to the right, 24 times, as if flying to the right and to the left. This opens the chest, and makes it feel comfortable. The muscles, bones and heart are likewise benefited, and so disease is prevented. ( The illustration resembles those for the Second and Tenth months of the Year's Series).

No. 4. - The Relaxing-Tendon Tiger.

The Dragon Series 497

Both legs are stretched out flat on the ground from the body right and left, with the arms grasping the feet like the string of a bow, turning to the right and left 12 times each way. With the view of moving the muscles, ligaments and bones, preventing the production of disease, or removing it far off.

No. 5. - The Tiger suspended from a Beam. Suspended from a cross-bar, weigh the body, first on one hand, then on the other, 24 times; and all manner of diseases will vanish, the air and blood will circulate, and the viscera be made comfortable.

No. 6. - The Tiger fixed like the Tripod of an Incense Burner.

Sit cross-legged and straight, with hands at the side like a tripod firmly fixed, with the shoulder placed straight, and the head thrown up 24 times. This is considered great kung-fu, and calculated to produce great good.

No. 7. - The Standing - on - one - Leg Tiger.

First on one side, and then on the other, each 12 times. To give peace to the bones and ligaments of the entire body.

No. 8. - The Turning - his - Body Tiger.

The Dragon Series 498

As if the feet were flying, and the two hands on the ground supporting the body. To be done 24 times without stopping. To prevent the air stopping anywhere, and causing debility and laziness of the body.

No. 9. - The Tiger turning himself.

The hands are turned with palms backwards, and the shoulders are grasped firmly 81 times. Used for broadening the chest, and causing the blood and air to move constantly. (The illustration is similar to No. 3, of the Medicinal Kung).

No. 10. - The Tiger swallowing Saliva.

The saliva to be swallowed 24 times. To diminish the fire (inflammation) of the heart.

No. 11. - The Peach - Blossom Tiger.

The face is to be roughed with both hands, the voice is to be thrown out by pronouncing ha until the face is red and quite hot, and there are no wrinkles, and the face is as if the person had been drinking.0

No. 12. - The Peaceful Spirit Tiger.

Sit cross-legged, to pacify the heart, as if looking at a beautiful garden or picture.

* The peach tree is an emblem and symbol of longevity, and derives much of its allegorical character from a reference to it in the Book of Odes. It occupies too a prominent position in the mystical fancies of the Tauists. Magical virtues were very early attributed to twigs of this tree, and its use in making handles, beating clown earth with the view of driving away demons, is in constant demand, and originally in writing charms to be placed over the doors at the New Year to drive off evil spirits. The pilgrims to Miao-feng-shan, in the Fourth moon, bring back peach sticks to ward off evil spirits. A host of superstitious notions cluster around the peach-wood, - many of a magical nature. It yielded the fruit of immortality. According to Mayers, one of the panaceas of. the Tauists was said to be composed of the peach tree mingled with the powdered ash of the mulberry, which not alone cured all diseases but also conferred the boon of immortality.

No. 13. - The Tiger ( a lady ) playing the Dragon's Flute.

There are no holes in the sides; therefore played at the end If it be not blown, the air can not enter; and, if the air do not enter the road is not open; and, if the road be not open, the tan-t'ien air does not move, and the person is not able to play. If it succeed, then the tan-t'ien air passes to the "Heavenly Door," and so round the entire body, according to diagram illustrative of the Physiology of Kung-fu ( inserted at the end ).

No. 14. - The Dragon (a man ) playing the Tiger's Guitar.

To cause the heart to desire and wish for things, and then both their hearts will be "joyful and contract no disease (different musical instruments are recommended).

Then follows - The Dragon asking the Tiger the News, and The Tiger (a lady) arriving at the Village of the Dragon. The illustration is unfit for publication.