8. Paraffin serves another useful protective purpose in hindering the absorption of poisons by mucous surfaces which have been deprived of their epithelium. The normal epithelial covering of the intestines has remarkable filtering powers, by which toxins, especially colloid poisons, are excluded.

This filtering power is lost when the surface is denuded. A protective layer of oil renders great service in such cases, by hindering the absorption of these poisonous matters, which occurs with great readiness through abraded surfaces.

9. In cases of colitis, paraffin oil protects the irritated surfaces, but also through its lubricating effect and through softening the intestinal contents, aids greatly in overcoming the spastic condition of the intestine, which in many cases of chronic constipation is so formidable an obstacle to recovery. Laxatives of all sorts increase the spasticity of the intestine, and so aggravate the constipation which they are given to relieve. This is one reason why many are more constipated after taking a laxative than before. Temporary relief is obtained by the production of watery stools which are able to pass through the contracted bowel, but as soon as the first effects of the laxative pass off, constipation becomes worse than before, since the spasm is greater. Paraffin lubricates and protects the sensitive surface of the spastic bowel, and at the same time softens the intestinal contents so as to permit passage through the bowel without mechanical irritation. Cases of colitis are greatly benefited by the regular use of paraffin.

10. X-ray observations of Case, confirmed in many cases at the operating table by the writer, have shown that incompetency of the ileocecal valve is a most common and effective cause of iliac stasis. Experience in treating several hundreds of cases have shown that, aside from the regulation of diet, and the use of bran and agar-agar, the regular use of paraffin oil is the most effective means of combating this condition. Medicinal laxatives increase the antiperistalsis by which the reflux from the colon into the small intestine is increased. Case has shown by X-ray examination that paraffin increases the motility of the small intestine, while it does not increase antiperistalsis. It is thus a rational and efficient remedy of great value in dealing with this very large and important class of cases.

11. In all cases in which the stagnation of the small intestine is due to spasm of the ileocecal valve, induced by chronic appendicitis, ovarian irritation or inflammation, colitis, or possibly painful rectal disease through reflex irritation, paraffin proves itself to be an invaluable remedy, since it has the property of increasing the peristaltic activity of the small intestine to such a degree as to enable it to overcome the spasm of the ileocecal valve without producing irritation, which would inevitably increase the spasm of the sphincter, as do drug laxatives. The neutral character of paraffin, which enables it to stimulate and facilitate intestinal motility without producing irritation, is invaluable.

12. The regular use of paraffin oil very generally relieves hemorrhoids and fissure, even when of some years' standing. These morbid conditions are usually the result of constipation, and are maintained and aggravated by straining at stool. By the habitual use of paraffin, the stools are made soft, straining is avoided, the intestinal contents are rendered less irritating and infectious, and thus the diseased tissues are readily healed.

Since adopting the use of paraffin, the author has found that the number of cases in which operation for hemorrhoids is needed is greatly reduced. Patients who have contemplated submitting to operation for removal of hemorrhoids of many years' standing, in a short time after beginning the use of paraffin, often find themselves so completely relieved that an operation is no longer necessary.

13. Paraffin is capable of rendering invaluable service in cases of intestinal intoxication, by increasing the number of daily stools. The length of time which foodstuffs remain in the intestine is reduced from several days to a few hours. This greatly lessens the opportunity for development of putrefactive processes and the absorption of putrefaction products. It may be justly said that no other remedy is capable of rendering such important and efficient service in combating constipation as this simple and harmless agent; but it must be continuously, a proper dose (one or two table-spoonfuls) at each meal.