The story of noncontagious physical defects found and treated is set forth in the following table:

Table XIV

Medical Examination of School Children: Noncontagious Physical Defects Found and Treated, 1906

DefectsSchool ASchool BSchool C
FoundReported TreatedFoundReported TreatedFoundReported Treated
No.% of Total Defects FoundNo.% of Total Defects FoundNo.% of Total Defects FoundNo.% of Total Defects FoundNo.% of Total Defects FoundNo.% of Total Defects Found
Adenoids            
Nasal breathing            
Hyper-trophied tonsils            
Defective palate            
Defective hearing            
Defective vision            
Defective teeth            
Bad nutrition            
Diseased anterior cervical glands            
Diseased posterior cervical glands            
Heart disease            
Chorea            
Pulmonary disease            
Skin disease            
Deformity of spine            
Deformity of chest            
Deformity of extremities            
Defective mentality             
Total            

The effect of a report telling what schools have enough seats, proper ventilation, adequate medical inspection, safe drinking water, ample play space, and what schools are without these necessities is to cause the reader to rank the particular school that he happens to know; i.e. he says, "School A is better equipped than School B; or, School C is neglected." County and state superintendents in many states have acquired the habit of ranking schools according to the number of children who pass in arithmetic, algebra, etc. It would greatly further the cause of public health and, at the same time, advance the interest of education if state superintendents would rank individual schools, and if county superintendents would rank individual schools, according to the number of children found to have physical defects, the number afflicted with contagious diseases, and the number properly treated.

It is difficult to compare one school with another, because it is necessary to make subtractions and divisions and to reduce to percentages. It would not be so serious for a school of a thousand pupils as for a school of two hundred, to report 100 for adenoids. To make it possible to compare school with school without judging either unfairly, the state superintendent of schools for Connecticut has made tables in which cities are ranked according to the number of pupils, average attendance, per capita cost, etc. As to each of these headings, cities are grouped in a manner corresponding to the line up of a battalion, "according to height." A general table is then shown, which gives the ranking of each city with respect to each important item. Applied to schools, this would work out as follows:

Table XV

Table of Ranking-Schools Arranged Alphabetically

SchoolRank in
RegisterDefects FoundChildren Needing TreatmentChildren TreatedChildren not Treated
A10111112  6
B2022222412
C3033303618

Such a table fails to convey its significance unless the reader is reminded that rank 18 in children not treated is as good a record for a school that ranks 30 in register as is rank 6 for a school that ranks 10 in register.