Although violent mental derangement is generally preceded by symptoms of a premonitory character, it sometimes occurs very suddenly, making it necessary to take prompt measures. Mania may occur in consequence of disease of the brain or some temporary disorder of which delirium is a symptom,-as fever, delirium tremens, eta As soon as signs of mental derangement occur, the patient should be put under careful watch. If the head is hot and the pulse full, relief will generally be obtained by the application of ice to the head. Most cases also require hot applications to the extremities at the same time. A physician should be called at once, and if there are evidences of real disease of the brain, the patient should be put under careful medical treatment, with proper supervision, or sent to an insane asylum.