This section of the book is from "The Complete Herbalist" by Dr. O. Phelps Brown. Also available from Amazon: The Complete Herbalist: The People Their Own Physicians By The Use Of Nature's Remedies.
These consist of the organ itself, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, testes and scrotum.
The male organ conveys the urine from the bladder, and the seminal sections from the seminal vesicles. Its anterior extremity is called the glans, and its posterior extremity is the root; the intervening part, the body, which consists sof two structures, the corpus cavernosum, or cavernous body, and the corpus spongiosum, or spongy body. The skin is thin and delicate, studded with numerous sebaceous follicles. Surrounding the glans is a loose doubling of skin called the prepuce, which is connected to the mouth of the urethra by a process called fraenum. The thick rim or edge around the base of the glans is the crown, or corona glandis, behind which the organ is narrow, and this portion is known as the neck or collum. The caseous secretion found here is known as smegma, which is the product of the glands of Tyson, numerous about the neck and crown.
The cavernous body forms the largest part of the organ and in shape is a double cylinder. At the root these cylinders are separate and pointed, and called the crura of the penis. Each of these is firmly attached to the branches of the pubes and ischium, -- bones of the pelvis. The cavernous body has a thick, elastic, fibrous coating externally; internally it consists of a spongy structure made up of cells, or little caverns, which readily communicate with the arteries and veins. Those arteries that terminate in blind tufts are called helicine. The cylinders are partially separated from each other by a partition whose fibres resemble the teeth of a comb, whence the name septum pectiniforme.
The corpus spongiorum has the same fibrous covering as the cavernous body, and is also composed of cells, but which are larger than those of the cavernous body. Its relative position to the corpus cavernosum is about the same as a ramrod to a double-barrelled gun. Posteriorly it enlarges into what is called the bulb, lying between the crura of the organ. Anteriorly it forms the glans.
The urethra, or urinary canal from the bladder, perforates the spongy body. Its mouth at the glans is called meatus urinarius.
The seminal vesicles consist of two convoluted tubes placed at the posterior and inferior portion of the bladder. They are oblong in shape, about two inches in length. They act as a receptacle for the semen. When secreted by the testicles, the semen is conveyed by a tube, called the vas deferens, into these vesicles, where it is mixed with a little mucus, and retained until discharged.
The prostate gland is a dense hard structure, about the size of a horse-chestnut, surrounding the neck of the bladder, at the commencement of the urethra. It is perforated by the urethra, and also by the ductus ejaculatorius, which is formed by the junction of the vas deferens and the seminal duct. The semen is further liquefied by the secretion of the prostate, in its passage through the gland. It also discharges a thick and white secretion into the urethra. In front of the prostate are two glands (Cowper's), about the size of a pea, which also discharge a mucous secretion in to the urethra.
The scrotum is the bag-like covering for the testicles. Its skin is loose and thin, and of a dark color. The transverse wrinkles which cold produces are due to a dense, reddish, contractile structure, intimately connected with the skin, and called the dartos. The scrotum has a muscular covering, next to the dartos; its internal covering is called the tunica vaginalis.
The testes or testicles are the glands for the secretion of semen. They are two in number, oval in shape, and flattened laterally. They are suspended by the spermatic cord. Each testicle is formed by lobules, consisting of a fine tube, very finely convoluted, which, if finely dissected and unravelled, is many feet in length. The epididymus is a vermiform appendage encircling the posterior edge of the testicle, as a crest upon a helmet.
The spermatic cord consists of an artery and vein, and nerves, together with the vas deferens.
The erectile tissue of the organ consists essentially of intricate networks of veins, which communicate freely with each other, presenting a cellular appearance.
These features constitute what is termed the regional anatomy of the organs -- the minute anatomy being much more complex. The physiological functions of the male organs of generation are various, and inasmuch as they are associated very intimately with one of the most important of human passions, which if not properly controlled by the dictates of the moral sense, are exceedingly liable to derangement. Anything tending to cause a departure from a healthy or normal standard of action of these physiological functions, will assuredly induce a faulty condition of the organs themselves, besides impairing the integrity of the general health. Those interested in this subject may turn to page 350, and read the article on "Debility or Loss of Vitality." No one should be neglectful in this respect, but strenuously endeavor by correct habits of life to maintain the physiological functions in full purity, vigor and integrity of action.