This is known by pain when the patient breathes, or on pressure where the injury has taken place. Crepitation is also felt when the hand is placed over the part during respiration or coughing, and if the pleura is injured, the chest swells, or emphysema appears.

TREATMENT. -- If the broken ends project, apply a compress over it; if there is a depression, a compress is to be placed at each extremity. If there is a bruise, apply hot fomentations; then take a bandage six or eight inches wide, and draw it tightly around the chest over the injured part. This gives great relief, as it prevents expansion of the chest in respiration, and holds the broken ends in opposition. Keeping this bandage firmly applied is all that need be done in the way of treatment.