This frequently attends inflammatory diseases, especially acute nephritis. It may either arise from an irritation of the kidney beyond the point of secretion, or from a torpor or paralysis of the kidneys. It is important to distinguish it from retention of urine. It is sometimes very dangerous, being attended with vomiting, drowsiness, coma and convulsions. A vicarious secretion from the skin, bowels, etc., is also often established. It is evidently due to a sort of paralysis of the nerve centres.

TREATMENT. -- Leeches may be placed over the loins, and digitalis or squill administered. The demulcent drinks should be freely used. If turic acid is in excess, some carbonate may be given. If dependent upon torpor, the stimulating diuretics, as turpentine, should be used. Frequent hot sitz-baths are also beneficial.


This is often associated with some constitutional weakness. The bladder may be exclusively irritated and not be able to hold the urine, or the little circular muscle at the neck of the bladder may be debilitated or paralyzed, owing to acridity of the urine. In some cases it may be owing to debility of the kidneys.

TREATMENT. -- A course of tonics, sea-bathing, cold baths, warm clothing, etc., together with astringents and stimulating diuretics, will usually cure it. Small doses of the extract of belladonna will also afford relief. In case of paralysis of the bladder, nux vomica, electricity, counter-irritant application to the spine, and local irritants are necesssary.