Ar'nica monta'na, Arnica (Flowers), Leopards-bane, N.F. -- The dried flower-head with not more than 3 p.c. of foreign organic matter; Europe -- Germany, N. Asia, N. America. Perennial herb .3M (1 degree) high, hairy, striate; leaves bright green, pubescent -- radical oblong-ovate, entire -- cauline lanceolate; rhizome 5 Cm. (2') long, 2-4 Mm. (1/12-1/6') thick, brown wrinkled under surface with numerous fragile roots; achenes with hairy pappus. Flower-heads, chiefly tubular, ligulate with involucre and receptable (convex, pitted, short-hairy); ray-flowers yellow, 3-toothed, pistillate; disk-flowers tubular, perfect, reddish-yellow, stamens without tail-like appendage (dist. From Inula Helenium -- with 2 bristles or long tails at the base); achenes fusiform, striate, glandular-pubescent, surmounted by long pappus of barbellate bristles; odor characteristic, agreeable; taste bitter, acrid. Powder, yellowish-brown -- many pollen grains, 3 kinds of non-glandular hairs, 3 kinds of glandular hairs, pappus with multicellular axis and unicellular branches; solvents: diluted alcohol, hot water; contains arnicin (soluble in alcohol, alkalies) 4 p.c., volatile oil .04-.07 p.c., resin, fat, salt, arnidol (phytosterol), ash 6-9 p.c. Stimulant, tonic, carminative, diuretic, irritant, sternutatory, vulnerary -- slows the heart, increases aarterial tension; large doses (poisonous) emetic, cathartic, causing abdominal pains, headache, increased pulse and respiration, finally dilated pupils, muscular spasms (rare), cold extremities, infrequent pulse, death -- resembling aconite -- best antidote: atropin; typhoid condition, brain concussion intermittents, diarrhea, gout, nephritis, rheumatism, dropsy, chronic catarrh, nervous affections -- locally: paralysis, sprains, bruises, abrasions. Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Arnicae (67 p.c. alcohol), dose, mv-10 (.3-.6 cc.). 2. Tinctura Arnicae, 20 p.c. (Diluted alcohol), dose mxv-45 (1-3 cc.). Infusion, 5 p.c., 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.). Fomentation. Rhizome--Decoction. Extract--Plaster; Fluidextract, Tincture, all having same strength and doses as those from flower-heads. A. folio'sa, A. alpi'na, and A. Chamisso'nis, California to Maine, produce closely resembling flower-heads.
Arnica montana: 1, rhizome and stem; 2, flowering stem; 3, vertical section of disk-flower; 4, ray-floret.
Arnica montana: Ar, rhizome; Arnica: transverse section of rhizome, n-w, roots natural size, and magnified 12 diam.
Maranta starch. Canna starch.