Oleum Aurantii Florum. Oil of (Neroli) Orange Flowers, N.F.

Citrus aurantium, var. Amara, Linne'. 1. The dried rind of the unripe fruit. 2. The volatile oil distilled from the fresh flowers.

Habitat. N. India, cultivated near the Mediterranean Sea, Spain, W. Indies, Madeira, China, S. and S. W. United States, Florida, California, etc.

Syn. Aurant. Amar. Cort., Curacao (Wild) Orange, Aurantii Pericacarpium, Cortex Pomorum Aurantii; Br. Aurantii Cortex Recens, Aurantii Cortex Siccatus; Fr. Ecorce (Zeste) d'Orange amere, Ecorce de Bigarade; Ger. Cortex Aurantii Fructus, Pomeranzenschale.

Cit'rus. L. fr Gr...., after the town of citron in Judea, where it formerly flourished.

Au-ran'tium. L. aurum, gold -- i.e., yellow color of fruit.

A-ma'ra. L. amarus, bitter -- i.e., the decided bitter taste of the fruit.

Orange. Eng. Fr. Skr. nagarange through the Arab. naranj.

Plant

Small tree 3-4.6 M. (10-15degrees) high; stem branched; bark shining, smooth, greenish-brown; leaves 7.5-10 Cm. (3-4') long, ovate, evergreen, faintly serrate, with oil-vesicles, fragrant, petioles 12-25 Mm. (1/2-1') long; flowers May, 2.5 Cm. (1') broad, white; fruit 5-10 Cm. (2-4') in diameter, round, red or yellow, 9-11-celled, each several-seeded. RIND (zest), in thin, irregular bands (ribbons) or quarters, yellowish, greenish-brown, numerous minute pits and fine reticulate ridges; inner surface whitish, many slight conical projections, fine anastomosing lines formed by vascular bundles; fracture hard, short; odor fragrant, aromatic; taste aromatic, bitter.

Powder

yellowish-gray, light brown--many parenchyma fragments with thick cell walls, tracheae very small, calcium oxalate prisms; with potassium hydroxide T.S.--yellowish. Solvents: alcohol; water. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.). OIL (flowers), a pale yellow, slightly fluorescent, neutral liquid, distinctive fragrant odor, similar to orange blossoms, and an aromatic sweet then bitter taste; soluble in alcohol (1) with violet flourescence, neutral reaction, in 80 p.c. alcohol (2), with excess--cloudy; sp. gr. 0.874, dextrorotatory. Should be kept cool, dark, in small, well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.

Citrus Aurantium (var. Amara): 1, the end of a flowering twig; 2, flower, vertical section of ovary; 3, longitundial section of ovary; 4, seed; 5, longitudinal section of seed; 6, diagram of flower.

Commercial

This bitter fruit grows mostly in Spain, Madeira, India, China, being known as Seville or Bigarade Orange, and is not in the fresh state a commercial article with us. The Mandarin (C. sinen'sis), S. Europe, is much smaller, having flattened ends, very thin rind, and pleasant taste. The celebrated Bizarria, of Italy, produces on the same stem oranges, lemons, and citrons, and these often in mixed parts. The oil is distilled from fresh flowers, when it floats upon the water, and may easily be separated. There are four commercial grades: 1. Ne'role (Essence de) Pe'tale, most delicate -- from flowers of C. Aurantium. 2. Ne'role (Essence de) Bigarade -- from flowers of C. amara (Bigaradia), N.F. 3. Ne'role (Essence de) Portugal -- from immature fruits of C. Aurantium, 4. Ne'role (Essence de) Petit Grain -- from immature fruits and leaves of C. amara. Imported mostly from Grasse, Cannes, Messina, Nice.

Orange peel: transverse section, magnified 65 diam.

Constituents

Rind

Volatile oil, naringin (aurantiin) very bitter glucoside, aurantiamarin 1.5-2.5 p.c., leading bitter glucoside, isohesperidin .4-3 p.c., aurantiamaric acid .1 p.c., hesperidin, hesperic acid, (fixed oil, resin, gum, albumin, tannin, ash 4-7 p.c.). OIL (flowers): Linomene, linalool, linalyl acetate 7-18 p.c., geraniol, methyl anthranilate (to which odor and fluorescence are due.).

Oleum Auranti Amari, N.F. -- A volatile oil obtained by expression from the fresh peel. It is a pale yellow liquid, with characteristic, aromatic odor of Seville orange, and aromatic, bitter taste, soluble in alcohol (4), solution neutral, in all proportions of dehydrated alcohol, in glacial acetic acid (1); sp. gr. 0.845, dextrorotatory. Should be kept cool, dark, in small, well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.

Preparations

I. RIND: 1. Tinctura Aurantii Amari. Tincture of Bitter Orange Peel. (Syn., Tr. Aurant. Amar.; Br. Tinctura Aurantii; Fr. Teinture e'Ecorce d'Oranges ameres; Ger. Pomeranzen-(schalen) tinktur.).

Manufacture: 20 p.c. Similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 104, menstruum: 60 p.c. alcohol. Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).

Prep.: 1. Elixir Aurantii Amari, N.F., 2 p.c.

2. Tinctura Cinchonae Composita, 8 p.c. 3. Tinctura Gentianae Composita, 4 p.c., 4. Infusum Gentianae Compositum, N.F., 4/5 p.c. 5. Tinctura Amara, N.F., 6 p.c.

II. FLOWERS: 1. Aqua Aurantii Florum. Orange Flower Water. (Syn., Aq. Aurant Flor.,Aqua Aurantii Florum Fortior, Triple Orange Flower Water.)

Manufacture: Obtained as a by-product in distilling oil of orange flowers, or by collecting 3 parts of distillate from 2 of flowers. It is a saturated solution of the odoriferous principles of the fresh flowers obtained by distilling with water and separating the clear, saturated portion of the distillate; it is nearly colorless, clear or faintly opalescent, strong pleasant odor, and taste of orange blossoms; must be free from empyreuma, mustiness, or fungoid growths, and is best preserved by allowing a limited access of fresh air to the container. Tests: 1. Evaporate 100 cc.--residue .001 Gm.; neutral, slightly acid. 2. With hydrogen sulphide T.S., or sodum sulphide T.S.--no reaction (abs. of metallic impurities). Dose, 3j-4 (4-15 cc.).

Preps.: 1. Syrupus Aurantii Florum. Syrup of Orange Flowers. (Syn., Syr, Aurant. Flor.; Fr. Sirop de Fleurs d'Oranges; Ger. Pomeranzenbluthensirup.)

Manufacture

Dissolve by agitation sucrose 85 Gm. in a mixture of orange flower water and distilled water, each 22.5 cc., without heat, add of the latter q.s. 100 cc., mix thoroughly, strain. Dose, ad libitum; as a flavoring vehicle 2. Trochisci Acidi Tannici, q.s. 3. Elixir Aurantii Amari, N.F., 2 p.c. 4. Elixir Amygdaloe Compositum, N.F., 15 p.c. 5. Elixir Glycyrrhizoe Aquosum, N.F., 20 p.c. 6. Liquor Hypophosphitum Compositus, N.F., 3.5 p.c. 7. Liquor Phosphatum Compositus, N.F., 12.5 p.c. 8. Syr. Calc. Lactophos., N.F., 5 p.c.

III. OIL (RIND): 1. Elixir Aurantii Amari, N.F., 2/5 p.c.

IV. OIL (Flowers): 1. Spiritus Odoratus, N.F., 2/5 p.c.

Unoff. Preps.: RIND: Fldext. (75 p.c. alc.). Inf. (Br.), 5 p.c., 3 iv-8 (15-30 cc.). Inf. Comp. (Br.), 2.5 p.c. + lemon peel 1, clove .5. Wine (Br.) -- fermenting saccharine solution + fresh bitter orange peel.

Properties

Stimulant, tonic, carminative, stomachic, bitter; excessive doses of both peel and oil cause colic, convulsions, occasionally death.

Uses

In indigestion, flatulence, corrigent to purgatives; aromatic when in combination with gentian, calumba, quassia, cinchona, etc.; most of the preparations are used as flavoring agents. Workmen employed among the fruit have skin eruptions, nervousness, headache, gastralgia, insomnia, muscular spasms.