Caryophyllus aromaticus, Linne'. (The dried flower-buds with not more than 5 p.c. stems nor 1 p.c. other foreign organic matter, yielding not less than 15 p.c. volatile ether-soluble extractive nor more than 10 p.c. crude fiber nor .75 p.c. acid-insoluble ash.

Habitat. Molucca (Spice or Clove) Islands, five in number, N.E. of Celebes, now mostly abandoned there, but cultivated in Indian Ocean islands, Amboyna group, Sumatra, Malacca, Penang, etc., S. America, Brazil, Guiana, Cayenne, Africa, Zanzibar, West Indies.

Syn. Caryoph, Cloves, Mother Cloves, Caryophylli Aromatica; Br. Caryophyllum; Fr. Girofle, Clous (aromatiques) de Girofle; Ger. Gewurznelken; Flores Caryophylli,Nagelin.

Car-y-o-phyl'lus. L. Fr. Gr. ..., a nut, + ..., a leaf -- i.e., referring to the appearance of flower buds.

Ar-o-mat'i-cus. L. Aromatic, fragrant -- i.e., its aromatic aroma, odor. Clove. L. clovus, a nail -- i.e., the resemblance of its dried flowers.

Plant

Handsome evergreen tree, 9-12 M. (30-40 degrees) high, much branched, forming a pyramidal crown; bark yellowish; leaves 10 Cm. (4') long, 5 Cm. (2') wide, entire, smooth, glandular, parallel veins to midrib, petiolate; flowers 15-20, rose-color, cymes; fruit berry-like. FLOWER-BUDS (clove), tack-shaped, 10-17.5 Mm. (2/5-3/4') long, dark brown, consisting of a stem-like solid, inferior ovary, obscurely 4-angled, terminated by 4 calyx teeth, and surmounted by a nearly globular head, consisting of 4 petals enclosing numerous curved stamens and 1 style; odor strongly aromatic; taste pungent, aromatic, followed by slight numbness; pressed strongly between thumbnail and finger -- volatile oil visible; should not float horizontally on water; stems, separate or attached, sub-cylindrical, 4-angled, 25 Mm. (1') long, 4 Mm. (1/6') thick, simple, branched jointed, less aromatic than flower-buds.

Powder

dark brown -- parenchyma fragments with large oil reservoirs, spiral tracheae, few bast-fibers, calcium oxalate rosette aggregates, numerous tetrahedral pollen grains. Tests: 1. Stone cells irregular or polygonal, with thick porous walls and large lumina, often filled with yellowish-brown amorphous substance -- few or absent (abs. of less than 5 p.c. of stems). 2. No starch grains present (abs of clove fruit or cereals). Solvents: alcohol (volatile oil, resin); water (odor--part of volatile oil but none of the pungent resin). Dose, gr. 5-10 (.3-.6 Gm.).

Caryophyllus aromaticus. Caryophyllus: a, natural size; b, longitudinal section magnified.

Adulterations

Flower

BUDS: Clove-stalks, 2 Mm. (1/12') thick, brown, contain volatile oil 4-5 p.c., for which they are imported as well as for their well-defined stone cells; mother clove (clove fruit, anthophylli) collected just before ripe, 2.5 Gm. (1') long, resemble clove, but thicker, lighter, weaker, with 4-lobed calyx, each cell 1-2-seeded, contain volatile oil 2-4 p.c.; exhausted clove, such as have undergone partial or complete exhaustion and distillation; pimenta, different shape and aroma; an artificial clove molded from a paste has been reported;

Powder

All of the above -- detected chiefly by peculiar starch grains, stone cells, and weakness of the preparations; cassia; ginger; sand; starch; flour; pepper shells. OIL: That from which eugenol has been abstracted or foreign eugenol added; clove-stem oil, alcohol, oils of turpentine, cinnamon, pimenta and copaiba, petroleum, fixed oils, phenol.

Commercial

Trees yield when 6 years old, reach perfection at 12 and thence decline until, at 20 they perish. Clove (flowers, buds) at first are white, then green, pink, and bright red, being collected at the pink stage by hand-picking on ladders and platforms, or by beating the trees with bamboos and catching the falling buds upon outspread cloths, after which they are dried by sun or slowly by fire. Each tree yields 5 pounds (2.3 Kg.), which are disposed of at 10 cents per pound (.5 Kg.). Clove was unknown to the ancients, having been brought to Europe by the Arabians and Venetians, while the Portuguese and Dutch long monopolized the trade. Now mostly from Zanzibar, the finest from Penang, some from Pemba, or via Bombay; however, much of our supply is from W. Indies, Cayenne, Guiana, etc. There are three varieties: 1, Molucca (Amboyna), thickest, heaviest, darkest, most oily and aromatic; two annual harvest s, June, Dec., in the Moluccas; 2, Sumatra (Bencoolen), considered by some of equal high grade as the preceding; 3, S. American, usually not so fine, but the freshest, contain volatile oil 10-15 p.c.

Clove(s) that are light (floating horizontally on water), small, soft, wrinkled, of pale color, feeble taste and smell, often without corolla bud or "head," are inferior from having been treated with a menstruum, or careless picking (including immature green and red buds) and drying (which should be done quickly and without exposure to bad weather), and should not be used direct or in obtaining the oil.

Constituents

Volatile oil 18 p.c., eugenol, eugenin (white pearly scales, isomeric with eugenol -- red with nitric acid), CHO, caryophyllin, tannin 10-13 p.c., resin (tasteless) 6 p.c., gum 13 p.c., vanillin, furfurol, green wax, cellulose 28 p.c., water 18 p.c., ash 4-8 p.c. (Of which .5 p.c. is insoluble in hydrochloric acid).

Oleum Caryophylli. Oil of Clove, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Ol. Caryoph., Clove Oil, Oil of Cloves; Fr. Essence de Girofle; Ger. Oleum Caryophyllorum, Nelkenol, Eugenol.) This volatile oil distilled from the dried flower-buds (clove) with water or steam, and usually 3 p.c. of sodium chloride, to raise the ebullition-point possibly to 109.5 degrees C. (229 degrees F.), is a colorless, pale yellow liquid, darker and thicker by age and exposure, characteristic odor and taste of clove, soluble in 2 vols. of 70 p.c., alcohol, levorotatory, sp. gr. 1.038-1.060; contains at least 82 (80-90) p.c. of eugenol, CHO (heavy portion -- phenol), caryophyllene, CH (light portion, polymeric with terpene, CH, sp. gr. 0.918--sesquiterpene), also 2-3 p.c. of eugenol acetate; methylamylketone (gives odor), vanillin, furfurol (causes oil to darken), methyl alcohol. Tests: 1. Shake oil (1) with hot distilled water (20) -- shows only slight acid reaction; filtrate with 1 drop of ferric chloride T.S. -- transient grayish-green color, but not blue or violet (abs.of phenol). Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles. Dose, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.).

Eugenol. Eugenol, CHO, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Eugenolum, Eugenin, Caryophyllic Acid Eugenic Acid, Allylguaiacol, Ethylmethyl-pyrocatechol, Para-oxy-metamethoxyallyl benzol.) This unsaturated, aromatic phenol (found also in oils of bay, canella, camphor, cinnamon (Ceylon), sassafras, pimento, Massoi bark) is obtained by shaking oil of clove with excess of

5-10 p.c. solution of sodium hydroxide in a separator, drawing off resulting solution of eugenol sodium, washing aqueous liquid with ether, decomposing with diluted sulphuric acid, washing separated eugenol with sodium carbonate solution (to remove adhering acid), distilling with steam or in vacuo. It is a colorless, pale yellow, thin liquid, strongly aromatic odor of clove; pungent, spicy taste; darker and thicker on exposure to air; miscible with alcohol, chloroform, ether, fixed oils, soluble in 2 volumes of 70 p.c. alcohol; mixed with hot distilled water (1 in 20) very slightly acid, sp. gr. 1.067, boils at 253 degrees C. (488 degrees F.); optically inactive and strongly refractive. Tests: 1. Dissolve 1 cc. In sodium hydroxide T.S. (12), add distilled water (18)--clear solution, turbid on exposure to air (abs. of hydrocarbons). 2. Shake 1 cc. With distilled water (20); to 5 cc. of clear filtrate add 1 drop of ferric chloride T.S. -- transient, grayish-green, not blue or violet (abs of phenol); upon eugenol alone the value of oil of clove depends. Should be kept cool, dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.).

Carophyllin, CHO. -- Obtained by treating ethereal extract of clove with water, filtering and treating the resulting precipitate with ammonia to purify; occurs in tasteless, inodorous silky needles, soluble in ether, slowly in alcohol, colored red with sulphuric acid, and by oxidation with nitric acid yields crystals of caryophyllinic acid, CHO.

Preparations

Clove

1.Tinctura Lavandulae Composita, p.c. 2. Tinctura Rhei Aromatica, 4 p.c. 3. Pulv. Arom. Rubefac., Rubefac. Spice Powder, N.F., 30 p.c., + cinnam. 30, zingib. 20, capsic.20. 4. Pulv. Cret. Arom., N.F. 3 p.c.: Prep.: 1. Pulv. Cret. Et Opii Arom., N.F., 97.5 p.c. 5. Pulv. Myric. Co., Composition Powder, N.F., 5 p.c. 6. Syr. Senn. Arom., N.F., 2/5 p.c. 7. Tr. Arom., N.F., 2 p.c. 8. Tr. Opii Crocat., N.F., 3/5 p.c. 9. Tr Viburn, Opul. Co., N.F., 5 p.c. OIL: 1. Acet. Arom., N.F., 1/10 p.c. 2. Dentif., N.F. 1/20 p.c. 3. Fldglycer. Casc. Sagr. Arom., N.F., 1/10 p.c. 4. Lavat. Ori., N.F., 1 p.c. 5. Liq. Pepsin, Arom., N.F., 1/20 p.c. 6. Nebul. Arom., N.F., 1/5 p.c. 7. Ol. Ricin, Arom., N.F., 1/10 p.c. 8. Sp. Card. Co., N.F., p.c. 9. Syr. Eriodict. Arom., N.F., 1/10 p.c. EUGENOL: 1. Mist. Ol.-Balsam, N.F., 2/5 p.c.

Unoff. Preps.: Infusion (Br.) 2.5 p.c., 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.). Inf. Aurant. Co. (Br.), .5 p.c. Tinct., 25 p.c. (Fr. alc.), 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.)

Properties

Stimulant, stomachic, carminative, antiemetic, aromatic, antispasmodic, rubefacient, germicide, antiseptic. Increases circulation, temperature, digestion, nutrition; excreted by kidneys, skin, liver, bronchi -- stimulating and disinfecting each.

Uses

Nausea, vomiting, flatulence, colic, indigestion, condiment, corrective; externally in rheumatism, neuralgia, toothache (oil + oil of peppermint + chloral hydrate, aa q.s.), in liniments, etc.; spice powder (poultice)--over stomach to expel gas, relieve colic, on nape of neck for infantile.