Cinnamomum Loureirii, Nees. The dried bark, yielding not less than 2 p.c. of volatile ether-soluble extractive.

Habitat. Annam (Cochin China).

Syn.Cinnam., Cinnamomum Saigonicum, Annam -- China -- God's Cinnamon, Annam Cassia, Cortex Cinnamomi Saigonici; Fr. Cannelle de Saigon; Ger. Saigonsint.

Cin-na-mo'mum. L. fr. Ar. Kinnamon, cinnamon, probably connected with aaneh, a reed, cane -- i.e., resemblance of stems; or Malay koju manis, sweet wood, from its aromatic odor and taste.

Lou-rei'ri-i. L. Loureiri-um in honor of Jean de Loureiro, 1710-1791 -- i.e., a celebrated Portuguese botanist and writer, author of Flora Cochinchinensis, and other important works.

Sa-i-gon'i-cum. L. Belonging to Saigon, a country and city in Southern Annam -- i.e., its native habitat.

Plant

Handsome evergreen tree, 6-9 M, (20-30 degrees) high, trunk .3-.5 M. (12-18') thick, young twigs slightly quadrangular; leaves coriaceous, 3-5-nerved, but only midrib reaches apex, bright glossy-green above, glaucous beneath, 10-20 Cm. (4-8') long; flowers Jan.-March, small, hermaphrodite or polygamous, fleshy, black, ovoid, size of small olive, adhering, like acorn, to cup-shaped perianth. BARK, in quills, 30 Cm. (12') long, 4 Cm. (4/5') broad; bark .5-3 Mm (1/50-1/8') thick, light brown, dark purplish-brown with grayish patches of crustose lichens and numerous bud-scars, finely wrinkled, especially that of younger twigs, otherwise rough from corky patches surrounding the lenticels; inner surface reddish-brown, dark brown, granular, slightly striate; fracture short--inner bark porous from large oil and mucilage cells, and separated from the outer by a layer of stone cells; odor characteristic, aromatic; taste sweetish, aromatic, pungent;

Powder

yellowish-brown--numerous starch grains; single and 2-4- compound, single grains .005-.025 Mm. (1/5000-1/1000') stone cells irregular, bast-fibers with slightly lignified walls; oil and mucilage cells. Solvents: alcohol; hot water partially. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).

Cinnamomum twig, showing leaf venation.

Adulterations

Bark

Saigon -- Cassia bark, and a closely resembling bark of unknown derivation, having lighter gray color and coarser structure identified by weak odor and taste; possibly unscraped Guava bark quills, and clove bark; Ceylon -- Scarcely possible in the entire state;

Powder

Neither Saigon or Ceylon found on the market, all so labeled being cassia, which is subject to endless admixtures -- chips, siftings, buds, walnut-shells, oil stone, flower, sand, beans, grains, starch, clove-buds--exhausted drug, by percolation, distillation; ash (sometimes) 8-10 p.c.; OIL: That distilled from flowers and roots, phenol, oil of clove, petroleum, colophony, lead.

Cinnamomum: a, flower; b, vertical section of the same.

Commercial

Cinnamon was a very early favorite spice, being brought by Arabian navigators to the Phoenicians, Grecians, and Romans, the Chinese cassia being used first, the Ceylon not until 1275. While there are about 50 species growing wild, only a few yield the commercial bark--this resulting mostly from cultivated plants. At one time Ceylon excelled in the industry, but their coffee largely has replaced it, thus restricting to the neighborhood of Colombo the principal cinnamon gardens; however, S. China has become equally interested in the cultivation and as a result produces much valuable bark. There are two important varieties: 1, Saigon, Annam Cassia (Cinnamon, U.S.P.), thought to be entirely from wild trees (C. Lourei'rii, and other species), growing in the mountainous districts of Annam. While chips and thick trunk-bark sometimes reach us, most is from branches and small stems, all being of good quality--sweet ,aromatic, almost void of stringency and bitterness; some consider it high-grade cassia, but its own specific structure, area of growth, and absence of objectionable qualities in the corky layer seem to preclude such a possibility; certainly it is related more closely to cassia than to Ceylon, and may be an inferior grade (from one or more species distinct from C. Cassia) of that distinctive Chinese cinnamon so highly prized by the natives; 2, Ceylon (Cinnamon), formerly in U.S.P., considered best, being nearly all from cultivated plants through the process of pollarding, so that in 2-3 years many slender stems are produced with bark devoid of astringent and corky layer, this latter not yet having had time to form. The cultivation of cinnamon begins with the planting of seed in prepared soil, 4-5 in each hill, from which, in 5-6 years, the straight stems due to continued pruning, 1.5-3 M. (5-10 degrees) high, are cut down with catty-knives, and by coppicing a new crop of twigs is formed every 2-3 years. The barking (March-June, after which delicacy and aroma lessen) takes place under cover by making 2 equidistant longtudinal incisions and transverse ones every few feet apart, then teasing off easily with a mama-knife (Saigon); the bark may now be allowed to wilt or undergo partial fermentation for several days, becoming soft and pliable, thus facilitating epidermal separation, when it is laid concave downward and scraped to the layer of stone cells, thereby rejecting the bitter or astringent portion (Ceylon); congeries of quills are formed, which when dried (first by shade, then by sun) are made into 30-pound (14 Kg.) bundles and marketed as to quality in firsts, seconds, thirds, the inferior grades being distilled for oil; or each quill is dried separately (Saigon) and tied into bundles for exportation. The bark is imported loose or in bundles with split bamboo bands from Canton, Hong Kong (Saigon), Calcutta, Colombo.

Cinnamomum: a, b, c, from China: d, e, from Ceylon.

Constituents

Volatile oil .5-2 p.c., tannin 3-5 p.c., resin, bitter principle, sugar, mannite, starch, mucilage, ash 6 p.c., of which 2 p.c. is insoluble in diluted hydrochloric acid.

Oleum Cinnamomi, Oil of Cinnamon, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Ol. Cinnam., Oleum Cassiae, U.S.P. 1910, Cassia Oil, Oleum Cinnamomi Cassiae, Oil of Chinese Cinnamon; Fr. Essence (Huile) de Cannelle de Chine; Ger. Zimtol, Zimtkassienol.) This volatile oil distilled from the leaves, twigs, and waste bark of Cinnamomum Cassia (Chinese), and rectified by steam distillation, is a yellowish-brownish liquid, darker and thicker by age and exposure, characteristic odor and taste of cassia cinnamon, sp. gr. 1.055 soluble in alcohol (1), glacial acetic acid (1), 70 p.c. alcohol (2), optically almost inactive; contains at least 80 p.c. of cinnamic aldehyde, CHO (oxidizing into resin and cinnamic acid) upon which the value depends, also cinnamyl acetate, CHCHO (liquid of unpleasant acrid taste), and phenyl-propyl acetate, orthocumaric aldehyde, cinnamic acid, CHO; this latter is not in fresh oil, and after being formed becomes, by further oxidation, benzoic acid. Tests: 1. Shake oil (2) with purified petroleum benzin (5-10) -- decanted liquid is colorless and gives no green color when shaken with equal volume of (1 in 1000) copper acetate solution (abs. of rosin or rosin oils). 2. Thoroughly wash a 1000 cc. beaker and a filter paper free of chlorides; place 3 or 4 drops of oil on a clean watch glass on triangle, ignite, immediately cover with moistened beaker; wash products of combusion through washed filter paper with 10-20 cc. distilled water, acidulate filtrate with 1 drop nitric acid, add 1 drop silver nitrate T.S. -- no turbidity (abs. of chlorinated products). Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles. The Ger.P. and U.S.P. recognize only the oil of Chinese cinnamon (cassia), while the Br. P. And Fr. Codex that of Ceylon cinnamon; the former is more abundant and cheaper, the latter of finer flavor and more delicate aroma, containing besides cinnamic aldehyde, some eugenol and phellandrene. Dose, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.).

Preparations

Bark

1. Tinctura Cardamomi Composita, 2.5 p.c. 2. Tinctura Gambir Composita, 2.5 p.c. 3. Tinctura Lavandula Composita, 2 p.c. Tinctura Rhei Aromatica, 4 p.c. 5. Syrupus Cinnamomi, N.F., 10 p.c. 6. Tinctura Cinnamomi, N.F., 20 p.c. (Glycerin 7.5 p.c., alcohol 67.5, water 25. Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.):

Preps.: 1. Elixir Taraxaci Compositum, N.F., 3 p.c. 2. Mistura Rhei Alkalina,N.F., 6.4 p.c. 7. Pulvis Aromaticus, N.F., 35 p.c. + ginger 35, cardamom seed 15, myristica 15. 8. Pulvis Aropmaticus Rubefaciens, N.F., 30 p.c., cinnamon 30, clove 30, ginger 20, capsicum 20. 9. Pulvis Cretae Aromaticus, N.F., 8 p.c. 10. Syrupus Sennae Aromaticus, N.F. 2/5 p.c. 11. Tinctura Antiperiodica, N.F., 1/15 p.c. 12. Tinctura Aromatica, N.F., 10 p.c. + ginger 4, galangal 2, clove 2, cardamom seed 2. 13. Tinctura Opii Crocata, N.F., 3/5 p.c. 14. Tinctura Opii et Gambir Composita, N.F., 1/40 p.c. 15. Tinctura Viburni Opuli Composita, N.F., 6.5 p.c.

II. Oil: 1. Aqua Cinnamomi. Cinnamon Water. (Syn., Aq. Cinnam.; Fr. Eau de Cannelle; Ger. (Einfaces) Zimtwasser.)

Manufacture: 1/5 p.c. Similar to Aquae Aromaticae; triturate oil .2 cc. with purified talc 1.5 Gm., recently boiled distilled water q.s. 100 cc., filter until clear. Dose 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.).

Preps

1. Infusum Digitalis (1.5 p.c.) -- 15 p.c. 2. Mistura Cretae, 40 p.c. 3. Liquor Ferri Albuinati, N.F., 20 p.c. 4. Syrupus Ipecacuanhae et Opii, N.F., 3.2 p.c. 5. Tinctura Rhei Aquosa, N.F., 12.5 p.c.

2. Spiritus Cinnamomi. Spirit of Cinnamon. (Syn., Sp. Cinnam.; Fr. Alcoolat de Cannelle;

Ger. Zimtspiritus.) Manufacture: 10 p.c. Dissolve oil 10 cc. in alcohol q.s. 100 cc. Dose, mv-30 (.3-2 cc.). Preps.: 1. Syrupus Rhei, 2/5 p.c. 2. Syrupus Ipecacuanhae et Opii, N.F., 2/5 p.c. 3.Taballae Phenolphthaleini, N.F. 1/50 m. Acidum Sulphuricum Aromaticum 1/10 p.c. 4. Fluidextractum Cascarae Sagradae Aromaticum, 1/50 p.c. 5. Acetum Aromaticum, N.F. 1/20 p.c. 6. Dentifricium, N.F., .175 p.c. 7. Fluidglyceratum Cascarae Sagradae Aromaticum, N.F., 1/10 p.c. 8. Lavatio Ori, N.F., p.c. 9. Liquor Pepsini Aromaticus, N.F., 1/40 p.c. 10.Mistura Oleo-Balsamica, N.F., 2/5 p.c. 11. Nebula Aromatica, N.F., 1/5 p.c. 12. Nebula Mentholis Composita, N.F., 1/5 p.c. 13. Odontalgicum, N.F., 17 p.c. 14. Oleum Ricini Aromaticum, N.F., 3/10 p.c. 15. Spiritus Cardamomi Compositus, N.F., 1 p.c. 16. Spiritus Vanillini Compositus, N.F., p.c. 17. Syrupus Rhamni Catharticae, N.F. 1/50 p.c.

Unoff. Preps.: BARK: Fluidextract, mc-30 (.3-2cc.). Infusion, 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).

Properties

Carminative, stomachic, stimulant, astringent, hemostatic, aromatic, antispasmodic, germicide. The oil has no astringency.

Uses

Diarrhea, flatulence, nausea, vomiting, menorrhagia, parturient, to correct griping medicines; for flavoring preparations, chocolate, etc.

Allied Products:

1. Cinnaldehydum, Cinnamic Aldehyde, CHO, U.S.P. 1900.--Obtained as a natural product by shaking oil of cassia with aqueous solution of acid sodium sulphite, filtering, washing crystalline magma with alcohol, decomposing with diluted sulphuric acid, or synthetically by oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol by dry distillation of a mixture of calcium cinnamate and formate, or as a condensation-product by acting on benzaldehyde (10), acetaldehyde (15) with hydrochloric acid gas, or with 10 p.c. solution of sodium hydroxide (10) + water (900). It is a colorless liquid, cinnamon-like odor, burning, aromatic taste, sp. gr. 1.047, boils at 250 degrees C. (482 degrees F.) with partial decomposition, optically inactive, solidified with ice and salt should melt at -7.5 degrees C. (18.5 degrees F.), soluble in alcohol, ether, fixed or volatile oils, sparingly in water; contains at least 95 p.c. of pure cinnamic aldehyde. Similar to oil of cinnamon, for which it may be substituted. Should be kept in well-stoppered, small, amber-colored bottles. Dose, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.).

2. Cinnamomum Cassia (aromat'icum), Chinese Cinnamon. -- The dried bark of the shoots deprived of most of the corky portion, U.S.P. 1820-1890; China. Plant -- handsome tree, but bark removed when 5-6 years old, occurring in quills 5-20 Mm. (1/5-4/5') broad, bark 1-2 Mm. (1/25-1/12') thick, deprived of corky layer, yellowish-brown, often with grayish patches, rough, inside nearly smooth, faintly striate, fracture nearly smooth; odor fragrant; taste sweet, aromatic, pungent, astringent. The outer layers are simply imperfectly removed by curved knives or planes, those of iron being avoided, consequently can be recognized readily by having undergone this treatment, also by its more irregular zone of stone cells, the greater abundance of bast-fibers and tannin. This bark is very irregular in quality, owing to its varied origin, and accordingly is recognized in commerce as Cassia, Cassia vera, Cassia lignea, etc. C. Burman'ni is believed to yield the Sumatra, also a portion of the Java, Cina, Timor; C. Tam'ala, some of the Calcutta, N. India, Cochin China; C. I'ners, part of E. Indian archipelago.

3. Cassia Buds, Flores Cassiae. -- These are the small, stem-like immature fruits of various species, somewhat resembling, but smaller than clove, having fine cinnamon odor and taste; contain oil of cinnamon, tannin, etc.