Olea europaea, Linne'. A fixed oil obtained from the ripe fruit.

Plant

When wild a branched, thorny shrub; under cultivation a tree 3-9 M. (10-30 degrees) high, resembling white willow; bark grayish-white; leaves 5-6 Cm. (2-2 2/5') long, lanceolate, acute, entire, coriaceous, glabrous, upper side glaucous-green, the lower silvery-white; flowers many, small, creamy-white, diandrous, racemes; fruit drupe, 12-25 Mm. (1/2-1') long, ovoid, pointed, olive-green then deep purple, sarcocarp firm, fleshy, internally greenish and filled with oil; stone (putamen) thick, bony, ovoid, 1-seeded.

Constituents

FRUIT (SARCOCARP): Fixed oil 70 p.c., water 25 p.c.

Oleum Olivae. Olive Oil. -- It is a pale yellow, light greenish-yellow, oily liquid, slight peculiar odor and taste, faintly acrid after-taste; slightlsoluble in alcohol, miscible with ether, chloroform, carbon disulphide; sp. gr. 0.915; cooled from 10-8 degrees C. (50-46 degrees F.) Somewhat cloudy from separation of crystalline particles, at 0 degrees C. (32 degrees F.) forms whitish, granular mass; contains olein 70 p.c., linolein 6 p.c., palmitin and arachin 28 p.c., phytosterin (unsaponifiable matter, once thought to be cholesterin), chlorophyll (from fruit, imparting greenish color). Tests: 1. Mix in test-tube 5 cc. with 5 cc. of equal vols. of amyl alcohol and carbon disulphide, containing 1 p.c. of precipitated sulphur in solution, immerse to one-third its depth in boiling, saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution -- no reddish color in 15 minutes (abs. of cottonseed oil). 2. Mix 2 cc. With 1 cc. of hydrochloric acid containing 1 p.c. of sucrose, shake half a minute, let stand 5 minutes, add 3 cc. of distilled water, shake -- acid layer shows no pink color (abs. of sesame oil). Should be kept cool, in well-closed containers. Dose, adult, 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.), when for gall-stones 3 viij-16 (240-480 cc.); infant, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.), in emulsion.

Adulterations

Chiefly cottonseed oil, also peanut, poppy, rape, and sesame oils, etc., rarely less than 25 p.c.; all of these congeal at much lower temperature, and do not solidify when shaken with mercuric nitrate (12), as does pure olive oil.

Commercial

Tree is grown successfully in California, but our supply of oil comes solely from Europe, it being obtained by crushing ripe fruit short of the putamen, subjecting marc, in coarse bags, to strong pressure, and running oil into vessels containing water, from which, after a few days subsidence, it is skimmed, thus constituting the first grade, huile vierge -- virgin oil; the press-cakes are taken from the bags, finely broken up with hot water, and subjected to greater pressure, thereby removing both water and oil, the latter being drawn off from the surface, constituting second-grade oil; the remaining marc contains 9-12 p.c. of oil, which may be extracted by carbon disulphide, or by mixing with hot water in cisterns (enfer), and allowing partial fermentation, yielding on the surface a disagreeably smelling oil, huile d'enfer; sometimes inferior fruit is allowed to ferment in heaps or vats, giving by expression also an inferior oil, huile fermentee. In order to combine perfume, fineness, and sweetness the oil must be from fruit slightly ripe, and then stored 6-8 months, until the strong flavor has disappeared; it enters commerce in bottles, jugs, and barrels, under the brands: Provence, Florence, Gallipoli, Spanish, Sicily -- the best from S. France, the most from Italy (one-half), and Spain (one-fifth).

Preparations

1. Sapo. Soap. (Syn., Olive Oil Castile Soap, Sodium Oleate; Br. Sapo Durus, Hard Soap; Fr. Savon Medicinae, Savon blanc d'Espagne; Ger. Sapo medicatus -- (hispanicus), Medizinische Seife, Seife, Spanische Seife.)

Manufacture

Olive oil and sodium hydroxide are boiled together until saponified -- CH(CHO) + 3NaOH equals 3NaCHO (hard soap) + CH(OH). It is a white, whitish solid (in bars), hard, yet easily cut when fresh, or a fine, yellowish-white powder, faint, characteristic odor, free from rancidity, disagreeable, alkaline taste; soluble in water, alcohol, more readily with heat; aqueous solution alkaline. Impurities: Water, soap from animal fats, sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, silica, metallic and other alcohol-insoluble substances.

Preps.: 1. Linimentum Saponis. Soap Liniment. (Syn., Lin. Sapon., Liquid Opodeldoc, Tinctura Saponis Camphorata, Spiritus Nervinus Camphoratus; Fr. Liniment savonneux camphre; Ger. Linimentum saponato-camphoratum, Opodeldok.)

Manufacture

6 p.c. Dissolve camphor 4.5 Gm., oil of rosemary 1 cc. in alcohol 70 cc., add soap 6 Gm., water q.s. 100 cc.; agitate until soap dissolved, set in cool place for 24 hours, filter; used externally.

Preps.: 1. Linimentum Chloroformi, 70 p.c. 2. Linimentum Aconiti et Chloroformi, N.F. 75 p.c.

2. Extractum Colocynthidis Compositum, 15 p.c. 3. Pilulae Aloes, 2 gr. (.13 Gm.). 4. Pilulae Asafoetidae, 1 gr. (.06 Gm.). 5. Dentifricium, N.F. 5 p.c. 5. Emplastrum Saponis, N.F., 10 p.c. 7. Lavatio Ori, N.F., 6 p.c., + gluside 1/5 p.c., fuchsin 1/500, ol. cinnam., ol. Menth. pip., aa, ol. caryoph. 1, alcohol 75, water q.s. 100. 8. Linimentum Saponato-Camphoratum, Solid Opodeldoc, N.F., sod. carb. monohyd. 1 Gm., acid. stear. 5, camphor 2.5, water 10 cc., ol. thymi .3, ol. rosmar. .6, aq. ammon. 5, alcohol q.s. 100. 9. Pilulae Aloes et Asafoetidae, N.F., 1 gr. (.09 Gm.). 10 Pilulae Rhei, N.F., 1 gr. (.06 Gm.).

2. Emplastrum Plumbi Oleatis, q.s. 3. Curatio Paraffini, N.F., 3 p.c. 4. Emplastrum Fuscum Camphoratum, N.F., 60 p.c. 5. Linimentum Calaminae, N.F., 50 p.c. 6. Oleum Phenolatum, N.F., 95 p.c. 7. Unguentum Fuscum, N.F., 25 p.c. 7. Unguentum Fuscum, N.F. 25 p.c.

Unoff. Preps.: Compound Pill of Soap (Br.), 60 p.c., + opium 20, syrup of glucose 20, dose, gr. 2-4 (.13-.26 Gm.). Curd Soap (Br.).

Properties

Nutritious, demulcent, emollient, laxative, protection to mucous membrane against acrid or poisonous substances; it increases secretion of bile, peristalsis, and dissolves cholesterin, the chief constituent of gall-stones. Like other oils, it is partly emulsified and saponified in the intestines, its glycerin being set free, and fatty acid combining with free alkalies to form soap, which with the emulsion forms molecular basis of the chyle; it enters the blood through the lacteals, being finally oxidized into carbon dioxide and water. Soap has same properties.

Uses

Gall-stones, cantharides and other poisoning, infantile constipation in enema. Externally--burns, skin inflammations, to protect from air, insect-bites, stings, bruises, sprains, wounds, engorged mamae, rectal ascarides; facilitates removal of crusts, scales, etc., and introduction of bougies, catheters, pessaries, sounds, specula; to lubricate machinery, in making liniments, plasters, cerates, ointments, etc.

Allied Products

1. Olive Gum, Lecca Gum. -- Resinous substance which exudes spontaneously from the trees. 2. Leaves and young bark; used externally as astringents, antiseptics; internally as tonics in intermittents. 3. Olive Wood; has beautiful veins, pleasant odor, capable of fine polish, highly esteemed for backs of brushes, boxes, and in cabinet-work. 4. Olive Fruit; as a dessert -- for this the unripe fruit is steeped repeatedly in water containing lime and ashes, or solutions of NaOH and NaCl, then bottled in a slightly aromatic, concentrated salt solution; the small French or Provence and the large Spanish olives, "Queen olive," are used for this purpose. Ripe olive, Cal. -- purplish-black; oil 50 p.c.; aperient.