Aloe Perryi, Baker, vera, (Linne'), ferox, Miller. The inspissated juice of the leaves, yielding not more than 4 p.c. ash, 10 p.c. moisture, and 50 p.c. water-soluble extractive.

Habitat. 1. E. Africa, Island of Socotra; cultivated. 2. W. Indies (N.E. Africa, India); cultivated in Curacao, Aruba, Bonaire, Italy, Sicily, Malta, naturalized in Barbados Island, etc. 3. Cape of Good Hope (S. Africa).

Syn. 1. Aloe Socotrina, Socotrine (sucus citrinus), - Bombay, - Mocha, - Turkey, - Zanzibar-Aloe; Fr. Aloes'" Ger. Aloe', Socotra Aloe, Socotrinische Aloe. 2. Aloe Barbadensis, Barbados, - Curacao, - Ease Indian, - India, - Bitter, - Hepatic, - Horse-Aloe; Fr. Aloees hepatique des Barbades, ou de la Jamaique; Ger. Barbados Aloe. 3. Aloe Capensis, Aloe lucida, Shining (Glassy) Aloe; Fr. Aloes du Cap; Ger. Kapaloe.

Al'o-e. L. Fr. Ar. Alloeh, Gr. Native names for the aloe.

Per'ry-i. L. After Wykeham Perry, who studied the plant natively.

Ve'ra. L. Verus, true -- i.e., the original and true primitive kind.

Fer'ox. L. Fr Ferox or ferus, fierce, coarse, wild -- i.e., large plant with leaves prickly on surface as well as margins.

Plants

Perennials; stems 1.5 M. (5 degrees) high, woody, rough from leaf-remnants; leaves glaucous-green, often with darker spots, thick, succulent, bayonet-shaped, margin with reddish spines or serratures; flowers racemose or spicate, tubular, yellowish, orange-red; stamens 6, unequal, 3 longer than corolla.

Inspissated Juice

(Aloe -- A. Perryi): Socotrine, yellowish, - blackish-brown, opaque, smooth glistening masses, fracture somewhat conchoidal; odor characteristic; (A. Vera): Curacao, orange, blackish-brown, opaque, smooth glistening masses, fracture somewhat conchoidal; odor characteristic; (A. Vera): Curacao, orange, blackish-brown, opaque masses; fracture uneven, waxy, somewhat resinous; odor characteristic, disagreeable; (A. Ferox): Cape, reddish-brown masses, usually with yellowish powder, or in thin, transparent fragments, reddish-brown; fracture smooth and glassy; odor characteristic, sour, disagreeable. With nitric acid, Socotrine aloe -- yellowish reddish-brown solution; curacao -- deep red; Cape -- reddish-brown to purplish-brown, finally green; taste of each variety very bitter, nauseous.

Powder

Yellowish-brown, dark reddish-brown; mounted in a bland expressed oil, appears yellowish to reddish-brown angular or irregular fragments, color depending somewhat on thickness of fragments. Tests: l. Shake 1 Gm. + cold water 25 cc. Occasionally during 2 hours, place on filter, dry over sulphuric acid, wash with cold water q.s. 100 cc.; residue not over 50 p.c.; color of filtrate light yellowish-brown (socotrine), reddish-brown (curacao), yellowish (cape) darkens upon standing. 2. 5 cc. above filtrate, + water 45 cc. + 20 cc. sodium borate solution (1 in 20) -- green fluorescence, upon standing brownish liquid. 3. 10 cc. above filtrate, + water 90 cc., shake + benzene 10 cc., separate benzene layer + ammonia T.S. 5 cc. alcohol, heat gently, cool, -- nearly clear solution (abs. of gum, inorganic impurities). Solvents: alcohol; boiling water; cold water (4); insoluble in ether, chloroform. Dose: ½ - 10 (.03-.6 Gm.).

Adulterations

Aloe: Chiefly dried juice of inferior allied species, small amount of leaves, wood sticks, stones, leather, monkey and goat skins, implements, knives, nails, iron, resin, pitch, ochre, burned bones, gum, extract of glycyrrhiza, etc. -- 5 - 27 p.c. increasing ash to 26.5 p.c. Aloin: Resinous and other matter, recognized by imperfect solubility in water.

Commercial

Plants resemble to some extent. Aga've america'na, American Aloe or century plant, and were known to dioscorides and Celsus. The large, thick leaves have a central insipid, thick, mucilaginous juice as well as a peripheral bitter, watery, colorless juice (aloetic) in distinct, elongated, thin-walled ducts, which varies in activity with age of leaf and season of year. This superficial juice -- possibly a plant protection -- is collected when not too scanty or watery, March - April, just after the rainy season, by cutting off the leaves near their base, during sunshine, and standing them up for half an hour in skins depressed in the ground, or in a series of 5 V-shaped wooden troughs (1.2 M. 4 degrees long -- .3 - .5 M.; 12 - 18" deep), each with an opening in the lower inclined end to run off juice as it exudes by gravity alone (any pressure serving to expel also the undesirable central juice, possessing emmenagogue properties and suitable for poultices) into iron or copper vessels for evaporation, which continues 5 hours, occasionally ladling out the impurities. The colorless juice on exposure soon becomes yellowish-brown, but may be kept in barrels for months, as it does not spoil, and, according to demand, reduced slowly by sun (socotrine) or rapidly by fire (curacao, cape), thus imparting a heavier odor without injuring medicinal properties. In Curacao immediate evaporation, below the boiling-point, yields a variety called "Capey," from its luster and yellowish powder, but if evaporation is deferred a year the surface is dull, odor suggestive of fermentation; Powder: brownish, and less soluble in water (4 -13 p.c.). When of proper consistency the evaporated product -- commercial aloe -- is poured into tin-lined boxes, kegs, casks, tubs, monkey or goat skins and sent via Zanzibar to Bombay (socotrine), or into gourds (2 - 15 - 50 pounds: 1 - 7 - 23 kg.), boxes (60-100 pounds; 27-46 Kg.), small calabashes and shipped from Curacao, Bonnaire, Jamaica, Barbados (Curacao), or into boxes, bases, skins, and shipped from Algoa Bay, Capt Town, Mossel Bay (cape). There are three varieties: 1. Socotrine (A. Perryi), most expensive highly esteemed and flavored -- the best. 2. Curacao (Barbados) -- A. Vera (vulgaris), mostly used, and commands a higher price upon keeping. 3. Cape (A. Ferox), production equals all other varieties combined. Not used much in this country, but largely in Germany, S. Europe.

Constituents

-- Aloin (chiefly -- barb-aloin), Resin 30-50 p.c.; Emodin (Cape and Barbados) .15 - 2 p.c., volatile oil (to which disagreeable odor is due), .0015 p.c., moisture 5 - 10 p.c.: ash 1 - 4 p.c.

Aloinum. Aloin, U.S.P. A pentoside or mixture of pentosides from aloe, varying in chemical composition, physical and chemical properties according to source. Obtained chiefly by dissolving Caracao aloe (1) in boiling acidulated, HCL or H S0, water (10), letting stand 24 hours for resin to deposit, decanting, evaporating to 2 parts, setting aside 2 weeks to crystallize - yield 20-25 p.c. It is a microcrystallline powder, minute crystals, lemon-yellow, darker on exposure, odorless, slight odor of aloe, intensely bitter taste; varies in solubility with its slight odor of aloe; intensely bitter taste; varies in solubility with its composition -- soluble in water, alcohol, acetone, ammonia water, solutions of alkali hydroxides, slightly in ether.  Tests: 1. Aqueous solution -- yellow, brown on standing, neutral, faintly acid. 2. Dissolves in alkaline hydroxide solutions -- red, yellow becoming red, green fluorescence. 3. Decomposes when added to alkaline solutions, more slowly in acid solutions; alcoholic solution + a drop of ferric chloride T.S. -- brownish-green; incinerate - ash.5 p.c.; insoluble residue in water dried -- 1.5 p. c. 4. Shake 1 Gm. + benzene 10 cc. -- filtrate imparts faint pink color to equal volumn of 5 p.c. ammonia water(lim. of emodin).  Curacao-aloin, C H 0, identical with barb-aloin, ugand-aloin, cap-aloin, when boiled with nitric acid -- chrysammic acid, crimson color; soc- aloin, C H0, with nitric acid -- no color change; nat-aloin dissolved in sulphuric acid in proximity to glass rod dipped into nitric acid -- solution green, blue, violet, orange-red -- but no effect on the two preceding.  Twice as active as aloe and usually produces no griping.  Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers.  Dose: gr. 1/2 - 2 (.03-.13 Gm.).

Resin: Obtained by allowing a dilute aloetic infusion to cool, when it precipitates, filtering, drying.  Like aloin, varies according to source, the several kinds being esters of various acids (cinnamic, paracumaric, etc.) With aloresino-tannol; soluble in hot water (thus differing from other resins), alcohol, ether, alkaline solutions, brownish-black by feffic salts; equally active as the drug, due possibly to accidental presence of aloin.

Emodin (Aloe-emodin).  -- Believed to be in Cape and Barbados, but not in Natal or Socotrine, and is obtained by dissolving it in ether from aloin, of which, as well as of aloe, it is the purgative principle.  In aloin, just as in anthraglucosennin, rhein, frangulin, and purshianin, the alkaline secretions of the upper intestine must produce decomposition, whereby the emodin thus set free may produce peristalsis, hence the cathartic action of the drug.

Preparations

I. ALOE: 1. Piluloe Aloes.  Pills of Aloe. (Syn., Pil.  Aloes; Br.Pilula Aloes, Aloes Pill; Fr.  Pilules d'Aloes et de savon; Ger.  Aloepillen.)

Manufacture: Mix aloe 13 Gm., soap 13, water q.s. 100 pills.  Dose: 1 - 4 pills.

2. Extractum colocynthidis Compositum, 50 p.c. 3. Tinctura Benzoini Composita, 2 p.c. 4. Piluloe Aloes et Asafoetidoe, N.F., aa, 1 1/2gr. (.09 Gm.). 5. Piluloe Aloes et Ferri, N.F. aa, 1 gr. (. 06 Gm.). 6. Piluloe Aloes et Mastiches, N.V., 2 gr. (. 13 Gm.). 7. Piluloe Aloes et Myrrhoe, N.F., 2 gr. (. 13 Gm.). 8. Piluloe Aloes et Podophylli Compositoe, N.F., 1 gr. (. 13 Gm.). 9. Piluloe Aloes Hydrargyri et Podophylli, N.F., 2 gr. (. 13 Gm.). 10.  Piluloe Ferri, Quininoe, Aloes et Nucis Vomicoe, N.F., 1 gr. (. 06 Gm.). 11. Piluloe Rhei Compositoe, N.F., 1 1/2gr. (.09 Gm.).  12.  Piluloe Antiperiodicoe, N.F., 2 gr. (. 13 Gm.). Dose: each, 1 - 2 pills. 13.  Pulvis Aloes et Canelloe, Hiera Picra, N.F., 80 p.c. + canella 20.  Dose: gr. 15 - 30 (1 - 2 Gm.). 14.  Tinctura Aloes, N.F., 10 p.c. Dose:3ss-1 (2 - 4 cc.). 15.  Tinctura Aloes et Myrrhoe, N.F., aa 10 p.c.  Dose: 3ss-1 (2 - 4 cc.). 16.  Tinctura Antiperiodica, N.F., 3.5 p.c. H. Aloin: 1. Piluloe Aloini Compositoe, N.F., Y2gr. (.032 Gm.). 2. Piluloe Aloini, Strychninoe et Belladonnoe, N.F., 115 gr. .013 Gm.). 3. Piluloe Aloini, Strychninoe et Belladon-noe Compositoe, N.F., 115 gr. (. 013 Gm.). 4. Piluloe Laxativoe Compositoe, N.F., 115 gr. (.013 Gm.). Dose: each, 1 - 2 pills.

Unoff. Preps: Compound Decoction (Br. -- 1 p.c. of extract).  Extract, gr. 1/2 - 5 (.03 -.3 Gm.). Wine.

Properties

Cathartic, drastic, emmenagogue, vermifuge, stomachic.  The action is especially on the colon and lower half of the large intestine, and thus causes irritation to uterus and inflamed hemorrhoids; stimulates the functions of the liver, intestinal secretions generally; increases the flow of bile, and acts in about 15 hours.  Abnormal doses do not produce proportionately excessive results, but invariably cause torinina, tenesmus with heat and rectal irritation -- the latter (stomach and rectum) being remedied largely by combining with soap or an alkaline carbonate.

Uses

Costiveness (dependent upon weakness of muscular layer of the large intestine), atonic dyspepsia, jaundice, non-active hemorrhoids, amenorrhea, ascarides; for the two last may give by enema.

Poisoning: Have irritation of intestinal canal, causing pain, vomiting, and purging, cold sweats, prostration, sometimes convulsions, collapse.  Empty stomach, give demulcents, opium, stimulants, artificial heat to body and extremities, hot fomentations to abdomen.

Allied Products

1. Hepatic Aloe: This name was applied formerly to a variety of Socotrine aloe from E.Indies, but now the term is given in this country to Barbados - in fact, to any opaque liver-colored aloe.

2. Natal Aloe: This has a greenish-slate hue, crystalline, fracture less shining than but odor of Cape aloe: it is of little value, and is shipped from Port Natal.

3. Moka Aloe: This has brownish-black color, irregular fracture, disagreeable odor, and is from the interior of Arabia.

4. Caballine or Horse Aloe: This is inferior, impure, having a dark color, fetid odor being from irregular sources.

5. Jafferabad Aloe: This has black-pitch color and luster, glassy, porous fracture, and is less agreeable than Socotrine aloe.