Styrax Benzoin, Dryander, or other species. The balsamic resin with not more than 1 p.c. foreign organic matter (Siam), yielding 75 (Sumatra) -90 ( Siam) p.c. alcohol-soluble extractive and 1 (Sumatra) -.5 (Siam) p .c. acid-insoluble ash.

Habitat. East Indies -- Sumatra, Siam, Java, Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Laos; cultivated; grown upon interior hills and sea coast plantation.

Syn. Gum Benjamin, Benzoin Laural, Benjamin tree, Resina Benzoe, Asa Dulcis; Fr. Benjoin (de Sumatra); Ger. Benzoe Benzoe.

Sty'rax. L. see etymology, above, of Styraceae.

Ben-zo-i'num. L. fr. Ar. luban, jawa, -- lu - ban - join, contracted, lit. "Incense of Java," in universal use.

Ben-so'in. The original word and mostly used.

Plant

Handsome tree, medium height, with dense spreading crown; bark grayish, tomentose; leaves oblong, downy, 7.5-12.5 Cm. (3-5') long, acuminate, dentate; flowers inside reddish, outside white, hairy anthers 2-celled. BALSAMIC RESIN: Sumatra Benzoin, in blocks, lumps of variable size made up of tears compacted together with reddish-brown resinous mass; tears yellowish-brown, fresh fracture milky-white; hard, brittle, softened by heat; odor aromatic, when boiled with water suggesting cinnamic acid or storax; taste aromatic, slightly acrid -- gritty on chewing; Siam Benzoin, in pebble-like tears of variable size, compressed, yellowish-brown, separate or slightly agglutinated, fracture milky-white, hard, brittle, softened by heat; odor agreeable, balsamic, vanilla-like; taste aromatic, slightly acrid -- plastic on chewing. Tests: 1. Alcohol dissolves 75 (Sumatra)-90 (Siam) p.c., the solution being acrid, and milky with water. 2. Heat fragments in test-tube -- sublimate formed just above melted mass, in plates, small rod-like crystals strongly polarizing light (Sumatra), or in long rod-shaped crystals slightly polarizing light (Siam). 3. Ethereal solution added to small quantity of sulphuric acid -- brownish-red (Sumatra), purplish-red (Siam). 4. Heat .5 Gm. with potassium permanganate T.S. 10 cc. -- Sumatra only develops odor of benzaldehyde. 5. Treat 1 Gm. with warm carbon disulphide 15, + 5 cc. filtrate spontaneously evaporated -- residue not over 12.5 p.c., and responds to tests of benzoic acid. Impurities: Rosin, foreign resins, etc. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).

Adulterations

Wood, bark, splinters, earthy matter, stones, resinous matrix (in cake benzoin -- remaining behind when treated with alcohol or sublimed), 10-40 p.c.

Commercial

Trees contain no resin-receptacles and only the unhealthy afford resin -- a pathological product (tannate transformation resulting from wounding)--which is obtained, July-Nov., from both wild and cultivated plants over 6 years old having a trunk 15-20 Cm. (6-8') thick, by making between the ground and the first branches longitudinal or oblique incisions, or a circle of notches through the bark into which the white liquid resin slowly exudes; after 3 months, when dry and hard (concreted), it is picked out, cut or scraped off with knives or sharp sticks, placed into baskets, and assorted according to size, cleanness, and quality, the larger tears (marbles, almonds) commanding the higher price. Each tree yields annually about 3 pounds (1.5 Kg.) for 12 years, when they are cut down; the first 3 years' product called natively head benzoin, is best, being more fragrant and filled with white tears; the next 7-8 years' yield, belly benzoin, is browner, with less white tears, while by felling the trees and splitting the stems an inferior quality, foot benzoin, "foots," is scraped off, being dark and mixed with wood, bark, etc. These names correspond to our superior, medium, inferior -- both having the same relative values, 105, 45, 18. It is received at the Sumatra ports in cakes wrapped in matting, there softened by heat, packed into chests, and sent to Penang and Singapore, thence into commerce; in Siam it is conveyed on bullocks' backs to Menam River, thence via Bangkok to market in cubical blocks. There are five varieties -- the first two being recognized by U.S.P.: 1, Sumatra, grayish-brown, with many white tears mixed with resinous matrix of unknown origin, reddish-brown with age; 75 p.c. soluble in alcohol, odor weak, storax-like; inferior kinds with few or no tears, but many chips of wood, bark, etc., especially in the center -- "drossy" or "false packed;" 2, Siam, best, reddish brown, in small or large tears; 90 p.c. soluble in alcohol, odor strongest, most agreeable, vanilla-like, taste bitter; occurs in two forms: (a) tears--almond-shaped lumps, often 2.5 Cm. (1') long, more or less flattened; (b) amygdaloid -- tears agglutinated with reddish-brown matrix; 3, Penang, similar to Sumatra, but odor even more storax-like, and possibly from other species of Styrax; 4, Palembang, free from tears, pale reddish-brown, opalescent luster (due to moisture, becoming moldy), little odor; contains benzoic acid, no cinnamic acid nor vanillin; tincture gives flocculent precipitate, not milkiness, in water; seldom reaches our market; 5, False (Catappa -- Bu'ceras Termina'lia) angutifo'lius -- Combretaceae); whitish-brown aromatic exudate obtained by incisions; resembles benzoin slightly; used as incense in E. India. While the quality of all varieties depend upon the amount of tears, yet the Sumatra its the great article of commerce, although the Siam is purest, least variable, and best flavored.

Constituents

Sumatra: Benzoic acid 10-20 p.c., Cinnamic acid, small amount or wanting, Resins, Vanillin .1-1 p.c., volatile oil (benzoic acid ester -- aromatic, neutral) .3 p.c., styracin 2-3 p.c., styrol, benzaldehyde, phenyl-proply cinnamate, 2 esters 75 p.c. (of which 92.6 p.c. is resinotannol, 7.4 p.c. benzoresinol) -- yielding cinnamic acid 33 p.c.; Siam: less benzoic acid, little or no cinnamic acid, more vanillin, 1-1.5 p.c., benzoresinol benzoate, C16H26O, 5 p.c. (long white prisms), resinotannol benzoate, CHO, 57 p.c., ash 2 (Sumatra) -2.5 (Siam) p.c.

Acidum Benzoicum. Benzoic Acid, CHCOOH, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Acid Benz., Acidum Benzoicum Sublimatum, Flores Benzoes, Flowers of Benzoin; Fr. Acide benzoique, Fleurs de Banjoin; Ger. Benzoesaure, Benzoeblumen.) This organic acid -- English variety, is obtained (wet process) by boiling benzoin several hours with milk of lime, filtering while hot, supersaturating filtrate with hydrochloric acid, allowing to crystallize, purifying; or more frequently (dry process) by the sublimation of benzoin (sometimes having an equal weight of sand added) between the temperatures 140-180 degrees C. (284-366 degrees F.). It is made also from hippuric acid (horse and cattle urine, furnishing the German benzoic acid), as well as synthetically from phthalic acid (naphthalene), CHCH, by passing chlorine into it (boiling) until ceasing to gain weight, thereby converting it first into benzo-trichlride, and then treating this with water under pressure -- CHCCl+ 2HO = CHCOOH + 3HCl; it is lustrous scales, friable needles; natural -- white, yellowish, darker on exposure to light, slight odor of benzoin; synthetic--white, odorless, slight odor of benzaldehyde; pungent acid taste, somewhat volatile at moderate temperature, freely with steam; soluble in water (275), boiling water (18), alcohol (2.3), boiling alcohol (1.5), chloroform (4.5), ether (3), benzene (10), carbon disulphide or tetrachloride (30), oil of turpentine (23), solutions of alkali hydroxides, fixed and volatile oils, sparingly in petroleum benzin; melts at 120 degrees C. (248 degrees F.); saturated solution acid; contains not less than 99.3 p.c. of CHCOOH; the sublimed is most soluble in water and contains volatile oil imparting odor; melts at 121 degrees C. (250 degrees F.); ash -- .05 p.c. Tests: 1. Warm for 5 minutes .1 Gm. synthetic acid + sulphuric acid 2 cc. -- not darker than light yellow, acid from benzoin -- light brown (abs. of readily carbonizable substances). 2. Dissolve .3 Gm. in hot water 15 cc., + N/10 potassium permanganate -- no odor of benzaldehyde (dif. from cinnamic acid). Impurities: Chlorinated compounds, cinnamic acid, readily carbonizable substances. Should be kept cool, dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).

Cinnamic Acid, CHO. -- Obtained by agitating filtered ethereal solution with weak sodium hydroxide solution (to remove benzoic acid and vanillin), distilling off ether, saponifying pure esters by boiling with sodium hydroxide solution several hours, acidifying, boiling, filtering, cooling, when crystals appear. The two acids may be separated by their different degree of volatility, benzoic acid melting at 121.4 degrees C. (250.5 degrees F.) and the two mixed (1 cinnamic, 2 benzoic) at 25.5 degrees C. (78 degrees F.).

Resins. -- One is extracted along with benzoic acid by boiling solution of potassium carbonate in excess; another is dissolved from the residue by ether, while the third is affected by neither solvent, hence left as a residue. With melted potassium hydroxide get paroxybenzoic acid, CHO, protocatechuic acid, CHO, and pyrocatechin, CHO.

Vanillin, CHO. -- Is obtained by treating Siam benzoin with caustic lime, precipitating benzoic acid with hydrochloric acid and shaking liquid with ether.

Preparations

Benzoin

1. Adeps Benzoinatus. Benzoinated Lard. (Syn., Adeps Benz., Benzoated Lard, Unguentum Benzoini, Axungia Balsamica -- Benzoinata or Benzoata; Br. Adeps Benzoatus; Fr. Axonge Benzionee; Ger. Adeps Suillus Benzoinatus, Benzoe (Benzoinirtes-schmalz)

Manufacture: 1 p.c. Melt lard 100 Gm. on water-bath, add Siam benzoin, in coarse powder, 1 Gm., mix thoroughly, heat gently, 60 degrees C. (140 degrees F.), for 2 hours, covering the vessel, strain, stir occasionally while cooling; when for hot-weather use, may replace 5 p.c. (or more) of the lard by white wax. Should be kept cool, in well-closed containers impervious to fat.

Preps.: 1. Ceratum 70 p.c. 2. Ceratum Cantharidis, 20 p.c. 3. Unguentum, 80 p.c. 4. Unguentum Hydrargyri Fortius, 25 p.c. 5. Unguentum Sulphuris 85 p.c. 6. Ceratum Camphorae N.F., 40 p.c. 7. Mulla Acidi Salicylici, N.F., 10 p.c. 8. Mulla Hydrargyri Chloridi Corrosivi, N.F., 5 p.c. 9. Mulla Zinci, N.F., 20 p.c. 10. Pasta Zinci Sulphurata, N.F., 70 p.c. 11. Unguentum Plumbi Iodidi, N.F., 90 p.c. 12. Unguentum Potassii Iodidi, N.F., 80 p.c. 13. Unguentum Stramonii, N.F., 65 p.c. 14. Unguentum Sulphuris Alkalinum, N.F., 65 p.c. 15. Unguentum Veratrinae, N.F., 90 p.c.

2. Tinctura Benzoini. Tincture of Benzoin. (Syn., Tr. Benz.; Fr. Teinture de Benjoin; Ger. Tr. Banzoes, Benzoetinktur.)

Manufacture

20 p.c. Similar to Tinctura Cardamomi Composita, page 137; menstruum: alcohol. Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.); largely externally.

Prep.: 1. Unguentum Picis Compositum, N.F., 2 p.c.

3. Tinctura Benzoini Composita. Compound Tincture of Benzoin. (Syn., Tr. Benz. Co., Friar's or Turlington's Balsam, Tinctura Balsamica, Balsamum

Commendatoris, Elixir Traumaticum; Fr. Teinture balsamique, Baume du Commandeur de Permes; Ger. Persischer Wundbalsam.)

Manufacture: 10 p.c. Similar to Tinctura Cardamomi Composita, page 137 -- using benzoin 10 Gm., aloe 2, storax 8, tolu 4; menstruum: alcohol. Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.); mostly externally.

4. Sevum Benzoinatum, N.F., 3 p.c.

Preps.: 1. Mulla Acidi Salicylici, N.F., 80 p.c. 2. Mulla Creosoti Salicylata, N.F., 65 p.c. 3. Mulla Hydrargyri Chloridi Corrosin N.F., 90 p.c. 4. Mulla Zince, N.F., 70 p.c.

II. BENZOIC ACID: 1. Tinctura Opii Camphorata, 2/5 p.c.

Unoff. Prep.: Benzoic Acid Lozenge (Br.), each gr. (.03 Gm.).

Properties

Stimulant, expectorant, antiseptic, diuretic, antipyretic. It is eliminated slightly by the skin, salivary glands, and broncho-pulmonary mucous membrane, but mostly by the kidneys, where it is converted into hippuric acid, which renders alkaline urine acid, increases the flow, disinfects and stimulates the genito-urinary tract.

Uses

Chronic laryngitis, diarrhea, dysentery. Locally the tincture as a stimulant and proective to wounds, to arrest coryza. Benzoic acid -- for bronchitis, uric acid deposits, cystitis, acute gonorrhea, phosphatic gravel, incontinence of urine, rheumatism. Bright's disease, albuminuria, dressing to wounds, ulcers.

Incompatibles

The tinctures with all aqueous preparations.