Swer'tia Chiray'ita, Chirata, N.F. -- The dried plant with not more than 3 pc. of foreign organic matter; N. India -- mountains. Annual plant, 1 M. (3 degrees) high, cylindrical above, quadrangular below, smooth, yellowish-brown, branched; wood yellowish -- thin, enclosing large yellowish, easily separable pith; root simple, 7 Mm. (1/4') thick near the crown; leaves opposite, sessile, ovate-lanceolate, entire; flowers small, panicled, 4-lobed calyx and corolla; fruit capsule, ovoid, many-seeded; odor slight; taste intensely bitter. Powder, yellowish-brown -- numerous tracheae, lignified fibers, abundant pith parenchyma cells with lignified walls, epidermis with stomata, seed, fragments of seed-coat, pollen grains, cells with brown resin and tannin masses; solvents: diluted alcohol, water partially; contains ophelic acid, chiratin, ash 6 p.c. (K, Ca, Mg, carbonates and phosphates). Tonic, febrifuge, stomachic, laxative, antispasmodic, hepatic, stimulant, large doses nauseate; indigestion, constipation, chronic bronchitis, similar to gentian and calumbo. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Chiratae (diluted alcohol), dose mxv-30 (1-2 cc.); Tincture 10 p.c. (67 p.c. alcohol), 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.). S. angustifo'lia and S. pulchel'la have entire square stems, pith thin or wanting; less bitter but used to adulterate the preceding.