1. Oleum Terebinthinae. Oil Of Turpentine, U.S.P.

2. Resina. Rosin, U.S.P.

Pinus palustria, Miller, and other species, yielding exclusively terpene oils. The volatile oil (1), and residue left (2) from distilling the oleoresin (turpentine).

Habitat. S. United States, Virginia to Texas, near the coast.

Syn. Long leaved (Yellow Pitch, Broom, Pitch, Swamp, Georgia) Pine; Common Frankincense, Terebinthina Communis. Thus Americanum, Frankincense, Crude Turpentine: 1. Ol. Tereb., Turpentine Oil, Spirits of Turpentine; Fr. Terebinthine (du Pin) de Bordeaux; Essence de Terebenthine officinale; Ger. (Gemeiner) Terpentin; Terpentinol: 2, Resin, Colophony; Fr. Resine blanche (jaune); Ger. Colophonium, Kolophonium, Geigenhars.

Pi'nus. L. see etymology, page 72 of Pinaceae.

Pa-lus'tris. L. Poluster, swampy -- i.e., it inhabits swamps or near marshy places.

Ter-e-bin'thi-na. L. Terebinthus; Gr...., of or from the terebinth -- turpentine tree.

Tur'pen-tine, fr. turbentine, terebinthine, terebinthina.

Plant

Large tree, 18-30 M. (60-100 degrees) high, .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) thick; bark thin, scaled, furrowed; wood hard, resinous; leaves many, crowded at end of branches, in 3's 25-40 Cm. (10-16') long, very narrow, sharp-pointed, triquetrous, in clusters surrounded by a sheath 25 Mm. (1') long; flowers sterile in violet aments, 5 Cm. (2') long' Fruit cone, large, oblong, 15-25 Cm. (6-10') long, scales armed with short spine. Oleoresin -- Terebinthina, Turpentine, N.F. Concrete oleoresin containing not more than 2 p.c. of foreign matter, occurs in yellowish, opaque masses, lighter internally, sticky, more or less glossy, brittle in cold; odor and taste characteristic; freely soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, glacial acetic acid; alcoholic solution acid reaction: rarely seen as yellow, opaque, viscid liquid.

Constituents

(CONCRETE) OLEORESIN: Volatile oil 20-30 p.c., Rosin (resina, resin) 50-60 p.c., bitter principle, formic, succinic, and possibly other resin acids--pinic and sylvic acids.

1. Oleum Terebinthinae. Oil of Turpentine, CH. -- Obtained by distilling with water or steam the (concrete) oleoresin (turpentine); it is a colorless liquid, characteristic odor and taste, both becoming stronger and less pleasant on aging or exposure (owing to formation of ozone, resin, formic and acetic acids), soluble in 5 vols. of alcohol, sp. gr. 0.861, rotation--dextro (variable), with hydrochloric acid forms artificial crystalline camphor, CHHCl; contains chiefly d-pinene (French oil l-pinene), also derivatives of pinene, and often camphene and fenchone.  Tests: 1. Evaporate 5 cc. over boiling water -- residue .1 Gm. (abs. of petroleum, paraffin, rosin oils).  2. Expose to air 3 drops on unsized white paper -- evaporates without leaving permanent stain (abs. of fixed oils).  3. Shake vigorously 5 cc. with equal volume of  hydrochloric acid -- only a light straw-yellow color in either acid or oily layer on standing 5 minutes, no brown or green.  Must be added to fuming acids drop by drop, and should be kept cool, in well-stoppered containers.

Adulterations

Tar oils, kerosene, petroleum benzin, paraffin oils, rosin oil, etc.

2. Resina. Rosin. -- This residue, left after distilling off the volatile oil from the (concrete) oleoresin (turpentine), is usually in sharply angular, translucent, amber-colored fragments, frequently covered with a yellow dust, fracture brittle at ordinary temperatures shiny and shallow-conchoidal; odor and taste slightly terebinthinate; freely soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, glacial acetic acid, fixed or volatile oils, dilute solutions of the fixed alkali hydroxides; contains anhydride of abietic acid, CHO, 80-90 p.c., pinic and sylvic acids.  Tests: 1. Alcoholic solution--acid; sp. gr. 1.08.  2. Easily fusible and burns with a dense yellowish smoke; ash .05 p.c.  3. Shaken with warm diluted alcohol -- abietic anhydride converted into abietic acid, CHO, crystalline; boiled with alkaline solution -- greasy salts of abietic acid (rosin soap); distil with super-heated steam -- benzene and toluene.  The varieties depend upon color, and this upon degree of heat employed in distillation; the older the trees, the greater the yield of rosin, the smaller the yield of oil.

Commercial

The P. Palustris (P. Austra'lis -- i.e., southern) grows in dry sandy soil from the sea to 100 miles (160 Km.) inland, the young trees resembling brooms, the older furnishing (Florida, Georgia, N. And S. Carolina) most of the turpentine and rosin of commerce.  The oleoresin secretes in the sapwood, and sparingly exudes spontaneously, so that to obtain it economically on a large scale the trees are cornered and chipped, which consists in removing, according to size of tree, one or two sections of bark -- each one-fourth the entire circumference, and a foot from the ground upward 4-5 feet -- then hacking the exposed wood in shape of the letter L, which may be extended slightly higher every few weeks to increase the flow.  Formerly at the base of each decorticated section the experienced axman cut a triangular-shaped cavity (box -- boxing), 4-8 pints (2-4 L.), capacity, to catch the exudation, which was ladled out with "turpentine dippers" every 2-3 weeks, poured into barrels (250 pounds; 110 Kg.) and subsequently distilled at a nearby station. But these deep-seated wounds were so depleting as to render the trees worthless, save for lumber, in 4-5 years, consequently this method has been replaced by the less destructive "cup and gutter system," which consists in suspending from a zinc nail near the base of scarified section a detachable terra cotta (Herty) or zinc cup, similar in appearance to the quart-flower pot, and above that nailing at incline, on either side of median line, a zinc gutter, 6 x 2', to direct flow into the cup, which, when filled, is easily removed, emptied into barrels and returned.  The first season's yield is about 100 gallons per 100 trees, diminishing thereafter.  The "crude" begins to flow early in March, becomes most rapid July-August when hot and dry, then slackens September-October.  The first year's product is best, virgin dip, yielding 6 ½ gallons (24 L.) of oil per barrel and "window'glass rosin;" succeeding years give yellow dip, yielding 4 gallons (15 L.) of oil per barrel and medium grades of rosin; some hardens on trees, scrapings, scrape, yielding 2 gallons (7.5 L.) of oil per barrel and brownish-black rosin.  In France covered pails or cups with lips, to avoid evaporation, chips, bark, etc., are used, into which the sap flows by a gutter through comparatively small hacked spaces, which, when alternating 5 working with 2 resting seasons, insures a handsome yield for 2 generations.  The comminuted wood has been distilled with water, steam, alkali, etc., but with questionable satisfaction.

In the distillation of concrete oleoresin, when the volatile oil ceases to come over, the resin (rosin) while hot is run off from the bottom of still and strained into barrels, while the condensed distillate (oil), floating above the water, is dipped out and barrelled for market.

Preparations

I. OIL: 1. Oleum Terebinthinae Rectificatum.  Rectified Oil of Turpentine.  (Syn., Ol. Tereb. Rect., Rectified Turpentine Oil; Fr. Essence de Terebenthine rectifiee; Ger. Gereinigtes Terpentinol.)

Manufacture

Shake thoroughly oil of turpentine, a convenient quantity, with an equal volume of sodium hydroxide solution, recover about three-fourths of the oil by distillation, separate the clear oil from the water, dry it by shaking with anhydrous calcium chloride or anhydrous sodium sulphate, filter.  It is a colorless liquid, conforming to the properties and tests of oil of turpentine, sp. gr. 0.858; evaporate 5 cc. -- residue .015 Gm.  Should be kept cool, cark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles, and dispensed when oil of turpentine is required for internal use.  Dose, stimulant, diuretic, mv-30 (.3-2 cc.); anthelmintic, 3ss-4 (2-15 cc.), on sugar or emulsified.

Preps.: 1. Emulsum Olei Terebinthinae.  Emulsion of Oil of Turpentine.  (Syn., Emuls. Ol. Tereb., Turpentine Emulsion;l Fr. Emulsion d'essence de Terebenthine; Ger. Terpentinolemulsion.)

Manufacture

15 p.c.  Add to dry bottle acacia 15 Gm., then rectified oil of turpentine 15 cc. and water exactly 10, agitate briskly until emulsified, add water q.s. 100 cc.  Dose 3j-8 (4-30 cc.).

2. Terpini Hydras. Terpin Hydrate, CH(OH).HO.  (Syn., Terpin. Hyd.; Fr. Dihydrate de terebenthene (terpilene); Ger. Terpinum hydratum, Terpinhydrat.)

Manufacture

This hydrate of the dihydric alcohol terpin is obtained bymixing in a shallow dish rectified oil of turpentine (4), alcohol (3), nitric acid (1), allowing to stand 3-4 days, collecting crystals, draining, drying on filter paper, recrystallizing from alcohol rendered slightly alkaline to remove adhering acid.  It is in colorless, lustrous, rhombic prisms, nearly odorless, slightly aromatic (resembling fresh lilacs, but not turpentine); somewhat bitter taste, efflorescent in dry air; soluble in water (200), boiling water (34), alcohol (13), boiling alcohol (3), chloroform (135), boiling glacial acetic acid (1); hot, saturated aqueous solution not acid to litmus.  Tests: 1. Heated slowly at 100 degrees C. (212 degrees F.) -- sublimes in fine needles; quickly heated -- melts at 116 degrees C. (241 degrees F.) with the loss of water; also loses water of crystallization slowly over sulphuric acid.  2. Hot aqueous solution with a few drops of sulphuric acid -- turbid, developing a strongly aromatic odor; incinerate 2 Gm. -- ash .05 p.c.  Should be kept cool, in well-closed containers.  Dose, gr. 2-15 (.13-1 Gm.).

Preps.: 1. Elixir Terpini Hydratis, N.F., 1.75 p.c.  Prep.: 1. Elixir Terpini Hydratis   et Codeinae, N.F. -- codeine 1/5 p.c.; 2. Elixir Terpini Hydratis et Creosoti   Compositum,  N.F., .44 p.c. + creosote .44, calcium glycerophos. .875, sodium   glycerophos. .875.   Dose, each 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).

2. Terebenum.  Terebene, C10H16.  (Syn., Tereben.; Fr. Terebene; Ger. Tereben.)

Manufacture

This liquid, consisting of dipentene (chiefly) and other hydrocarbons (terpinene, cymol, camphene, etc.) is obtained by adding gradually sulphuric acid (1) to oil of turpentine (20), allowing to stand for 24 hours, removing supernatant layer, neutralizing with chalk, distilling, further rectifying with steam.  It is a colorless, thin liquid, rather agreeable, thyme-like odor, aromatic, somewhat terebinthinate taste, soluble in alcohol (3), slightly in water; on exposure to light gradually becomes resinified and of acid reaction, sp. gr. 0.863, boils at 166 degrees C. (33l degrees F.).  Impurities: Rosin, unaltered oil of turpentine.  Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers.  Dose, mv-15 (.3-1 cc.).

3. Ceratum Cantharidis, 15 p.c. 4. Linimentum Terebinthinae, Kentish Ointment, N.F., 35 p.c. + rosin cerate 65.  5. Linimentum Opii Compositum, N.F., 22 p.c.  6. Linimentum Terebinthinae Aceticum, Linimentum Album, Stoke's Liniment, St. John Long's Liniment, N.F., 40 p.c. -- triturate 40 cc. + 2 fresh eggs + yolks of 2 other eggs, oil of lemon 16; then add acetic acid 80, water q.s. 1000 cc.  7. Petroxolinum Sulphuratum Compositum, N.F., 30 cc. in 100 cc. product.

II Rosin

1. Ceratum Resinae.  Rosin Cerate.  (Syn., Cerat. Res., Basilicon Ointment, Unguentum Tetrapharmacum; Br. Unguentum Resinae; Fr. Cerat (onguent) de Resine anglais; Ger. Konigssalbe, Harzsalbe, Zugsalbe.)

Manufacture

35 p.c.  Heat until liquefied rosin 35 Gm., add yellow wax 15, lard 50, strain, allow to congeal, stirring occasionally; in cold weather may use yellow wax 12, lard 53.

Prep.: 1. Linimentum Terebinthinae, N.F., 65 p.c., see above.

2. Emplastrum Adhesivum.  Adhesive Plaster.  (Syn., Emp. Adhaes., Emplastrum Elasticum, Rubber Adhesive Plaster; Fr. Emplatre caoutchoute simple; Ger. Kautschukheftpflaster.)

Manufacture

Mix mechanically rubber 20-30 p.c., resins, waxes, and an absorbent powder (zinc oxide, orris root or starch), and spread upon cotton cloth.

3. Ceratum Cantharidis, 17.5 p.c.  4. Ceratum Resinae Compositum, N.F., 22.5 p.c.  5. Solutio Resinae Chloroformica, N.F., 20 p.c.

III. OLEORESIN: 1. Ceratum Resinae Compositum, Deshler's Salve, N.F., 11.5 p.c. -- melt rosin 22.5 Gm.; yellow wax 22.5, turpentine 11.5,  prepared suet 30, add linseed oil 13.5, strain, stir.

PROPERTIES.  I. OIL OF TURPENTINE AND OLEORESIN. -- Internally -- stimulant, carminative, cathartic, anthelmintic, hemostatis, expectorant, diuretic, diaphoretic, antipyretic.  Externally--rubefacient, irritant, counter-irritant, antiseptic, disinfectant; contracts vessels, increases peristalsis, gastric secretion, stimulates heart, depresses nervous system.  Large doses produce gastroenteritis, vomiting, diarrhea, suppressed urine, lumbar pains, urethral burning, hematuria, strangury, insensibility, death by paralyzed respiration.  It is excreted by the skin, bronchi, and kidneys; inhaling vapors give nasal, ocular, and renal irritation.

II. TERPIN  HYDRATE. -- Antiseptic (arresting the development of tubercle bacilli), expectorant, diuretic, diaphoretic.

III.  TEREBENE. -- Stimulant, disinfectant, expectorant, astringent.

IV. RESIN. -- Antiseptic, slight stimulant.

Uses

I. OIL OF TURPENTINE AND OLEORESIN: Internally -- chronic bronchial catarrh, cystitis, gonorrhea; leucorrhea, gleet, chronic urinary troubles, piles, hemorrhages, puerperal fever, inflammation of bowels, traumatic erysipelas, intestinal worms, pneumonia, phosphorus-poisoning (old oil).

Externally -- rheumatism, sciatica, lumbago, neuralgia, bronchitis, pleurisy, peritonitis, tympanites, renal colic, gangrene, sprains, wounds, scabies, ringworms, enlarged glands, burns, frost-bites, colic; vapors of oil in whooping-cough, diphtheria, laryngitis.  Often associated with various liniments, chloroform, camphor, olive oil, narcotic extracts, etc.  The oleoresin may be given in pill form, hardened with magnesium oxide.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).

II. TERPIN HYDRATE. -- Acute and chronic bronchitis, hay fever, whooping-cough, chronic nephritis, chronic cystitis, gonorrhea.

III.  TEREBENE. -- Chronic bronchitis by inhalation and on sucrose (sugar) fermentative dyspepsia.

IV.  RESIN. -- Indolent ulcers, sores, wounds, in plasters, ointments, as emulsifying agent, chronic enteritis.

Poisoning: Have giddiness, gastro-enteritis, strangury, bloody, scanty urine, with viiolet odor; may have purging, cyanosis, dilated pupils, stertorous breathing, feeble, rapid pulse, coma, collapse.  Give emetics, if no purging use enema, then plenty of water and demulcent drinks, hot fomentations to loins, opium to allay pain.

Pix Pini, Pine Tar, U.S.P.  (Syn., Pix  Pin., Pix Liquidae, Resina Empyreumatica Liquida; Fr. Goudron vegetal; Ger. Holztheer, Theer.)  A product obtained by the destructive distillation of the wood of Pinus palustris or other species of Pinus (P. Tae'da, P. rig'ida, P. sylves'tris, and Larix sibir'ica.)

Manufacture

Refuse pine wood, cut in billets, is stacked compactly and covered with earth, except an opening at the apex for ignition and the escape of gases; slow combustion without flame is allowed to proceed, while a ditch at the bottom serves to run off the tarry liquid that is ladled into barrels; the wood is converted into charcoal and this becomes a valuable by-product.  In Europe permanent clay furnaces are used over and over.  It is a true, impure turpentine, semi-liquid, viscid, black-brown, non-crystalline, translucent in thin layers, granular and opaque with age; odor empyreumatic, terebinthinate, taste sharp, empyreumatic; miscible with alcohol, ether, chloroform, glacial acetic acid, fixed or volatile oils; heavier than water, slightly soluble in it -- solution pale yellowish-brown, acid reaction; ash .25 p.c.  Test: 1. Shake 1 cc., for 10 minutes, with water 10, add to filtrate a drop of ferric chloride T.S. -- greenish, then brown color.  Dose, gr 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.), in pill.

Constituents

Acetic acid, small quantities of formic, propionic, capronic acids, acetone, methyl alcohol, mesit, toluol, xylol, cumol, methol (all passing over with the light oil of tar), naphthalene, pyrene, chrysene, paraffin, phenols, creosote (25 p.c.), pyrocatechin, empyreumatic resin.

Preparations

1. Unguentum Picis Pini.  Tar Ointment.  (Syn., Ung. Pic. Pin., Unguentum Picis Liquidae: Fr. Pomatum cum Pice, Pommade de Goudron; Ger. Theersalbe.)

Manufacture

50 p.c.  Melt yellow wax 15 Gm., add petrolatum 35, and to melted mixture pine tar 50, previously warmed, incorporate thoroughly, strain, stir until congealed.

2. Oleum Picis Rectificatum.  Rectified Oil of Tar.  (Syn., Ol. Pic. Rect., Oleum Picis Liquidae Rectificatum; Fr. Huile volatile de Goudron rectifiee; Ger. Gereinigtes Theerol.)

Manufacture

Distil wood-tar and collect that fraction of the distillate lighter than water, redistil.  This volatile oil is a thin liquid, dark reddish-brown color, strong, empyreumatic odor and taste; soluble in alcohol, solution being acid, sp. gr. 0.975; contains hydro-carbons, phenols, acetic acid and other acids, undetermined empyreumatic products present in tar, being largely oil of turpentine.  Dose, mij-5 (.13-.2 cc.), in pills, water, or syrup.

Preps

1. Syrupus Picis Pini.  Syrup of Pine Tar.  (Syn., Syr. Pic. Pin., Syrupus Picis Liquidae, Syrup of Tar, Syrupus Piceus; Fr. Sirop de Goudron; Ger. Theersirup.)

Manufacture

1/10 p.c.  Mix oil .1 cc. with water 45, agitate mixture frequently during 15     minutes, set aside 24 hours, shaking occasionally; dissolve in filtrate sucrose 85 Cm.,     add water q.s. 100 cc., mix thoroughly, strain.  Dose, 3j-4 (4-15 cc.).

2.  Unguentum Picis Compositum, N.F., 4 p.c. + zinc oxide 3, tincture of benzoin 2.

3. Glyceritum Picis Pini, N.F., 6.3 p.c., glycerin 25.

Properties

Pine tar similar to oil of turpentine, but milder, scarcely ever vesicates, stimulant, expectorant, counter-irritant, insecticide.  Internally--disturbs digestion, large doses may cause vomiting, colic, pain, headache, dark urine similar to phenol.

Uses

Internally -- bronchitis, phthisis, vesical catarrh, constipation.  Externally -- scabies, scaly eruptions, eczema, burns, boils, sores, ulcers, gangrene, fissured nipples, hemorrhoids; fumes destroy foul odors.