Iris florenti'na or I. German'ica, or I. Pal'lida, Orris (Florentine), Orris Root, N.F. -- The rhizome with not more than 1 p.c. of foreign organic matter. N. Italy (near Florence), Germany, France. Perennial plant, leaves radical, sword-shape, shorter than stem, which rises in their midst (.3-.6 M.; 1-2 degrees) high, bearing 2 large white or bluish flowers; fruit capsule, 3-celled, many-seeded. Rhizome, various formed and sized pieces, usually jointed, branched, 5-10 Cm. (2-4') long, 1.5-3 Cm. (3/5-1 1/5') wide, knotty enlargements; leaf-scars above, numerous root-scars below, yellowish-white; fracture hard, rough, mealy, narrow cortex, distinct endodermis, large stele, many vascular bundles; odor fragrant, resembling violet; taste aromatic, bitterish. Powder, light yellow--parenchyma cells filled with characteristic starch grains, tracheae with markings, calcium oxalate prisms; solvent: alcohol; contains volatile oil (orris butter), iridin, starch, resin, tannin, ash 5 p.c. Stimulant, diuretic, emetic, cathartic; fresh root irritant; diarrhea, bronchitis, dropsy, tooth powder, masticatory for perfuming breath and teething infants; for this latter the more slender pieces are peeled smoothly and whitened with chalk or magnesium oxide; 1. Species Pectorales, 5 p.c. Adulterations: Rhizomes of I. pseudac'orus and I. foetidis'sima, both being somewhat darker, more astringent and acrid.