Gossypium herbaceum, Linne', or other species. 1. The hairs of the seed of cultivated varieties, freed from adhering impurities and linters, and deprived of fatty matter. 2. The refined fixed oil from the seeds of cultivated varieties.
Habitat. C. Asia, India, China, Arabia, N. E. Africa, Egypt; cultivated in United States, W. Indies, C. And S. America, N. Africa, Australia, Spain.
Syn.1. Gossyp. Purif., Absorbent Cotton, Gossypium, Cotton, Cotton Wool; Fr. Coton; Ger. Gossypium depuratum, Gereinigte Baumwolle. 2. Ol. Gossyp. Sem., Cotton Seed oil; Fr. Huile (de Coton) de Semences de Cotonnier; Ger. Baumwollsamenol.
Gos-syp-i-um. L. fr. Ar. Goz, Gothn, a soft, milky substance -- i.e., the hairs of the seeds.
Her-ba'ce-um. L. Herbaceus, grassy, herby -- i.e., the plant habit.
Small biennial or triennial shrub; stem branching, 1.5-3 M. (5-10 degrees) high, more or less woody; leaves hoary, palmately 3-5-lobed; flowers large, 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') long and wide, yellow, purple spot near the claw; fruit capsule or boll 4-5 Cm. (1 3/5-2') long, 3-5-celled, opening by as many valves when ripe, revealing loose, white tuft of long, slender hair that surrounds each one of the numerous seeds. HAIRS OF THE SEED, in white soft fine filaments, 12-37.5 Mm. (1/2-1 1/2') long; under microscope hollow, flattened, twisted bands, spirally striate, slightly thickened edges; odorless; almost tasteless; insoluble in ordinary solvents. Tests: 1. Compress in the hand, throw upon cold water -- readily absorbs latter and sinks. 2. Incinerate 5 Gm. -- ash .2 p.c. 3. Thoroughly saturate 10 Gm. with water 100 cc., with glass rod press out 2 separate portions, 25 cc. each; first portion, + 3 drops of phenolphthalein T.S.--no pink color (abs. of alkali); second portion, + 1 drop of methyl orange T.S. -- no pink color (abs. of acid). 4. Exhaust 10 Gm. With ether q.s. 200 cc., evaporate to dryness-residue not over .6 p.c. (abs. of fatty matter). 5. Extract 10 Gm. with alcohol q.s. 50 cc.; observed downward through a column 20 Cm. I depth -- may show yellowish color, but no blue or green (abs. of dyes). Impurities: Alkali, acid, fatty matter, dyes, water-soluble substances. Solvent: Ammoniated cupric oxide T.S. OIL OF THE SEEDS, a pale yellow, oily liquid, odorless, nearly odorless, bland taste, slightly soluble in alcohol; miscible with ether, chloroform, petroleum benzin, carbon disulphide, sp. gr. 0.9l8; on cooling below 12 degrees C. (54 degrees F.) particles of solid fat separate, and at -5 degrees C. (23 degrees F.) nearly or quite a solid. Tests: 1. Oil and carbon disulphide equal volumes + sulphuric acid (sp gr. 1.6-1.7) -- reddish-brown color rapidly produced. 2. Mix 2 cc. with 2 cc. of a mixture of equal vols. amyl alcohol and a 1 p.c. solution of precipitated sulphur in carbon disulphide, and immerse to one-third depth in boiling saturated aqueous solution of sodium chloride -- red color in 10-15 minutes. Dose, 3ij-8 (8-30 cc.).
I. HAIRS: Boehme'ria ni'vea, fiber may be used for cotton, lint, etc. II. OIL: 1, Brazil or Para Nut Oil; nuts 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, 3-edged, brownish-gray kernel, white, almond taste; yield 60 p.c. oil; 2, Oleum Fagi, Beech Oil, from fruit of Fa'gus sylvat'ica, kernels yield 22 p.c. oil; yellow, sp. gr. 0.922, congeals at -17.5 degrees C. (0 degree F.).
Cotton was known to the Arabians, Egyptians, and Chinese in the 10th century, and was carried to Spain by the Moors in the 16th century. The ancient Egyptians possibly were unacquainted with it, as their mummy fibers are all linen, and no seeds or paintings of plants are found in the tombs. However, in Peru mummy clothing from earliest date contain, cotton, consequently here may be its original habitat. Many species now give similar products, but our own is thought to be from G. Barbadense, Barbados Islans, W. Indies. Chapman refers long-staple or Sea Island cotton, which we cultivate, to G. Ni'grum, and short-staple or Upland cotton to G. Al'bum. The hairs are removed by hand or mill (cotton gin) from the seeds, and owing to the latter containing fixed oil, 15-20 p.c., a portion of it becomes absorbed by the attached fiber and must be eliminated before adapted for general use. Purification is effected by boiling carded cotton in 5 p.c. solution of potassium or sodium hydroxide, washing with water to remove soap, expressing, adding 5 p.c. solution of chlorinated lime, allowing to stand half an hour, washing, expressing, adding acidulated (HCl 5 p.c.) water, washing, expressing -- a process that may be repeated if necessary, removing 7-10 p.c. of weight, chieflyfat. The oil is obtained by cracking off testa, grinding and expressing kernels; at first it is thick, reddish-brown, turbid from albumen and mucilage, which mostly subside on standing, yielding orange-colored clarified oil; when this is treated with boiling water or superheated steam albuminoids are coagulated, giving lighter colored refined oil, which upon being bleached (agitated with alkaline solution and heated) yields winter-bleached oil; the loss in refining is 5-10 p.c., and as such is official. It is exported extensively for olive oil adulteration, for which demand a line of tanked steamers ply regularly between New Orleans and Europe, each having a capacity of 500,000-1,000,000 gallons; 12,000-20,000 barrels (1894-3788 KI.).
I. HAIRS: Cellulose (C6H10O5)x, inorganics 1.5 p.c., fixed oil 7-10 p.c. II. OIL: Olein, palmitin, linolein, glyceride of linoleic acid, and non-saponifiable yellow coloring matter.
I. HAIRS: 1. Pyroxylinum. Pyroxylin. (Syn., Pyroxylin, Soluble Gun Cotton, Colloxylin, Collodion Cotton, Lana Collodii; Fr. Fulmicoton soluble; Ger. Kollodiumwolle.)
Macerate purified cotton in a cooled mixture of 14 vols. of nitric acid and 22 vols. of sulphuric acid until the cotton is soluble in a mixture of 1 vol. of alcohol and 3 vols. of ether, remove adhering acid by washing first with cold, then boiling water, dry in small portions at 60 degrees C. (140 degrees F.). It is a yellowish-white matted mass of filaments, resembling raw cotton in appearance, harsh to the touch, exceedingly inflammable, burning, when unconfined, very rapidly with luminous flame, less explosive than cellulose hexanitrate; kept in well-closed bottles exposed to light, decomposes with evolution of nitrous vapors, and carbonaceous residue; consists chiefly of cellulose tetranitrate, CHO(NO). Tests. 1. Soluble slowly but completely in 25 parts of a mixture of 1 vol. Of alcohol and 3 vols. Of ether; soluble in acetone, glacial acetic acid, and precipitated from these solutions on the addition of water. 2. Saturate .5 Gm. With alcohol in a dish in cold water, ignite from top; when combustion complete, heat dish to redness -- ash .3 p.c. 3. Stir 1 Gm. + water 20 cc. For 10 minutes, filter -- filtrate shows no acid reaction; 10 cc. Evaporated to dryness on water-bath -- residue not more than .0015 Gm. (Abs. Of soluble substances). Should be kept dark, dry, in cartons packed loosely.
Prep.: 1. Collodion. Collodion. (Syn., Collod.; Fr. Collodion; Ger. Collodium, Kollodium.)
Shake in a tared bottle collodion 95 Gm., castor oil 3, camphor 2, until latter dissolved. Should be kept cool, remote from fire, in well-closed containers.
Preps.: 1. Collodium Bituminis Sulphonati, N.F., 90 p.c. 2. Collodium Salicylicum Compositum, N.F., 90 p.c. 3. Collodium Stypticum, N.F., 90 p.c.; each should be kept cool, in tightly-stoppered bottles.
2. Gossypium Stypticum, N.F. -- macerate 100 Gm. for 1 hour in solution of ferric chloride 80 cc., glycerin 16, water 225, press until it weighs 300 Gm., dry; keep in well-closed glass containers. II. OIL: 1. Linimentum Camphorae, 80 p.c. 2. Ampullae Camphorae, N.F., q.s. 3. Unguentum Picis Compositum, N.F., 34 p.c.
Unoff. Preps.: I. HAIRS: Medicated Cottons (borated, benzoinated, chlorinated, phenolated (carbolated), salicylated, iodoform, mercuric (bi)chloride, hemostatic, etc.); Iodine Collodion, 5 p.c.; Iodoform Collodion, 5 p.c., Croton Oil Collodion, 10 p.c. II. SEED: Cottonseed Tea (mucilaginous drink for dysentery, diarrhea, etc.)
I. HAIRS: Protective. II. OIL: Demulcent, nutrient.
I. HAIRS: Dressing in burns, scalds, erysipilas, blisters, surgical wounds; prevents entrance of organic germs that cause suppuration and septic disease. Cotton batting maintains local heat in pneumonia, rheumatism, and may be made into pessaries. II. OIL: Like olive and almond oils in pharmacy, liniments, etc., in culinary use for lard; to adulterate olive oil, in preparing woollen cloth, morocco leather, lubricating machinery, etc.
L. Gossypii (Radicis) Cortex, Cotton Root Bark, N.F. -- The recently gathered air-dried bark of the root of one or more cultivated varieties with not more than 5 p.c. of wood or other foreign organic matter. Root-bark, in flexible bands, quilled pieces, up to 30 Cm. (12') in length, 1 Mm. (1/25') thick, orange-brown, smooth, usually finely wrinkled, fissured, roughened from exfoliation of corky layers, fuzzy; inner surface light brown, striate; fracture tough, fibrous, separable into fibrous layers; odor slight, taste slightly acrid. Powder, brownish -- numerous bast-fibers, cortical parenchyma, starch grains, secretory reservoirs, medullary ray cells, calcium oxalate rosette crystals; solvents: diluted alcohol, boiling water; contains resin (acrid, colorless, soluble in water, becoming red on exposure and insoluble) 8 p.c., fixed oil, tannin, starch, ash 7 p.c. Emmenagogue, oxytocic, uterine hemostatic, similar to ergot, but less reliable; dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, uterine tumors and hemorrhages -- popular among negroes (who brought it from Africa) in Southern States for inducing abortion. Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Gossypii Corticis (alcohol), dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.). Decoction -- 3iv (120 Gm.) + water Oij (900 cc.), evaporated to Oj (450 cc.), 3ij (60 cc.), every half hour. G. Barbaden'se, G. Arbo'reum, G, religio'sum (fibers yellow), etc., furnish products which may be used similarly to the official.