Oleum Rosmarini. Oil of Rosemary, U.S.P.

Rosmarinus officinalis, Linne'. A volatile oil distilled from the fresh flowering tops,yielding not less than 2.5 p.c. esters (bornyl acetate) nor less than 10 p.c. total borneol free and as esters.

Habitat. Mediterranean Basin -- Spain to Asia Minor, N. Africa, reaching to Madeira and the Canary Islands; cultivated in gardens.

Syn. Garden Rosemary, Old-man, Folia Rosmarini, Folia Roris Marini, Folia Anthos; Fr. Romarin; Ger. Rosmarin Meerthau; Ol, Rosmar., Rosemary Oil, Oleum Anthos; Fr. Essence de Romarin; Ger. Rosmarinol.

Ros-ma-ri'nus. L. ros, dew, mist, + marinus, maris, of the sea -- sea foam -- i.e., from its maritime habitat and glaucous appearance. Rosemary -- not Mary's rose.

Of-fi-ci-na'lis. L. See etymology of (Smilaz) officinalis, page 122.

Plant

Small perennial shrub 1-1.3 M. (3-4 degrees) high, bushy, much branched; bark pale brown, twigs tomentose; flowers April-May, bilabiate, upper lip 2-parted, lower 3-divided, middle one being the largest, pale blue; fruit achenes, subglobose, smooth; leaves evergreen, many, sessile, 2.5 Cm. (1') long, linear, both ends blunt, entire, margins revolute, dark green, shining above, woolly with white, stellate hairs beneath, like the flowers, with aromatic fragrance, camphor-like; taste bitter.

Constituents

Volatile oil 1 p.c., resin, tannin, bitter principle.

Oleum Rosmarini. Oil of Rosemary. -- This volatile oil, obtained by distilling the fresh flowering tops with water or steam, is a colorless, pale yellow liquid, characteristic odor of rosemary, camphoraceous taste, soluble in 10 vol. of 80 pc., alcohol, sp. gr. 0.903, dextrorotatory; contains pinene, CH, 80 p.c., camphene, cineol, CHO, camphor, CH, also at least 2.5 p.c. of esters, calculated as bornyl acetate, CHCHO, and 10 p.c. of total borneol, CHOH.  Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.).

Adulterations

Oil

Oil of turpentine, etc., recognized by odor and not being affected by an equal volume of alcohol, which dissolves out oil of rosemary.

Commercial

The Dalmatian (Italian) oil of rosemary, distilled after the flowering season is over, and the French, distilled form the flowering tops and of finer odor, are the chief commercial varieties; the English, from cultivated plants, and the Spnish, being high priced are greatly esteemed by some, but little used.

Preparations

1. Linimentum Saponis, 1 p.c.  2. Tinctura Lavandulae Composita, 1/5 p.c.  3. Acetum Aromaticum, N.F., 1/20 p.c.  4. Linimentum Saponato-Camphoratum, N.F., 3/5 p.c.  5. Oleum Hyoscyami Compositum, N.F., 1/5 p.c.  6. Spiritus Odoratus, N.F., 7/10 p.c.

Unoff. Preps.: Infusion, 5 p.c.; Spirit (Br.), 10 p.c., mx-30 (.6-2 cc.)

Properties

Carminative, stimulant, diuretic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue; excessive doses cause death.

Uses

Colic, nervous disorders, menstrual derangements; externally in rheumatism, sprains, bruises.  Stimulates the hair in alopecia, reduces temperature, and imparts violet odor to urine; mainly used in liniments, lotions, ointments, perfumery.