Rosa gallica, Linne'. The dried petals, collected just before the expansion of the flower.

Habitat. W. Asia, S. Europe; cultivated (England, Holland, France, United States, etc.)

Syn. Rosa Gallica, Red Rose, Rosa Gall., French Rose, Provins Rose; Br. Rosae Gallicae Petala, Red Rose Petals, Flores Rossarum Rubrarum; Fr. Roses rouge--de Provins, Roses rouges; Ger. Franzosische Rose, Essigrosen-(blatter), Zucker-rose.

Ro'sa. L. fr. Gr...., Eng. rose fr. Celtic rhos, red -- i.e., the prevailing color of the flowers.

Gal'li-ca. L. gallicus, of or pertaining to Gaul, now France -- i.e., country where once it flourished extensively -- French rose.

Plant

Bushy shrub, .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) high, stems numerous, covered with prickles and a few sharp spines; leaves alternate, imparipinnate, 2 pairs opposite leaflets, these nearly sessile, ovate, rounded at base, acute at apex, serrate, stiff, keeled, rugose, with veins, pale, hairy below, leaf-serratures not edged with glands; flowers large, on long stalks, petals 5 in the wild state, more when cultivated, rich-crimson; fruit (hip) scarlet to orange-red, oblong, containing many 1-seeded achenes, calyx persistent. PETALS, either separate or imbricated in small cones, broadly ovate, summit rounded, deeply notched, margin entire, somewhat recurved, base obtuse, purplish-red except the light brown claw; texture velvety; when dry brittle; odor agreeable; taste astringent, slightly bitter.

Powder

reddish-brown--epidermal cells with purplish-red content (sap), fragments of fibro-vascular bundles, spiral tracheae, rectangular cells with purplish content (sap). Solvents: boiling water; diluted alcohol. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).

Commercial

Plant, in its many species and varieties, very largely cultivated domestically as well as commercially; petals are obtained by circumcising with a sharp knife the unopened corolla-buds, leaving the stamens behind on the calyx; or the entire blooms are cut off with knives or scissors, dried carefully but rapidly by stove heat (in order to preserve astringency and color), sifted, if necessary, from stamens, etc., and marketed; early collection is more astringent and of better color, qualities impaired by slow drying. It is claimed that 1000 flower-buds yield 50 pounds (23 Kg.) of fresh petals, which when dried become 5 pounds (2.3 Kg.).

Adulterations

Petals of various red roses.

Constituents

Volatile oil (trace), mucilage, tannin (rosatannic acid, quercitannic acid?), gallic acid, anthrocyanin -- sap pigment, quercitrin, quercetin (astringent and coloring), sugar, ash 3.5 p.c.

Preparations

1. Fluidextractum Rosae. Fluidextract of Rose. (Syn., Fldext. Ros., Fluid Extract of Rose; Fr. Extrait fluide de Rose rouge; Ger. Essigrosenfluidextrakt.)

Manufacture

Similar to Fluidextractum Ergotae, page 63; 1st menstruum: alcohol 50 cc., water 40 cc., glycerin 10 cc.; 2d diluted alcohol. Dose, mxv-60 (1-4 cc.).

Preps.: 1. Mel Rosae. Honey of Rose. (Syn., Mellitum Rosatum; Fr. Mellite de Roses rouges, Miel Rosat; Ger. Mel rosatum, Rosenhonig.)

Manufacture

12 p.c. Mix fluidextract of rose 12 cc. with honey q.s. 100 Gm. Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).

2. Syrupus Rosae, N.F., 12.5 p.c., + diluted sulphuric acid 1 p.c.

2. Aqua Rosae Fortior. Stronger Rose Water. (Syn., Aq. Ros. Fort., Triple Rose Water, Aqua Rosae; Fr. Eau distillee fort de Rose; Ger. Starkeres Rosenwasser.)

Manufacture

The saturated aqueous distillate from fresh flowers of Rosa centifolia. It is colorless, clear, strong, pleasant odor and taste of fresh rose blossoms, free from empyreuma, mustiness, or fungoid growths; neutral, slightly acid; evaporate 100 cc. -- residue .001 Gm.; no reaction with hydrogen sulphide T.S., or sodium sulphide T.S. (abs. of metallic substances). Dose, 3ij-8 (8-30 cc.)

Preps.: 1. Aqua Rosae. Rose Water. (Syn., Aq. Ros., Aqua Rosarum; Fr. Eau distillee de Rose; Ger. Rosenwasser.)

Manufacture

Mix, immediately before using, stronger rose water, and distilled water, each 1 volume. Dose, 3ij-8 (8-30 cc.).

2. Unguentum Aquae Rosae. Ointment of Rose Water. (Syn., Ung. Aq. Ros., Cold Cream; Fr. Creme froide; Ger. Unguentum leniens--emolliens.)

Manufacture: Melt, in fine pieces, spermaceti 12.5 Gm., white wax 12 Gm., add expressed oil of almond 56 Gm., stir, heat until uniform; add gradually stronger rose water .19 Gm., previously warmed and having dissolved in it sodium borate .5 Gm., stir rapidly and continuously until congealed and uniform; must be free from rancidity, and if chilled should be warmed slightly before incorporating other ingredients. Should be kept in pure tin, collapsible tubes.

3.Confectio Rosae, N.F., rose 8 Gm., sucrose 64, honey 12, stronger rose water 16, Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.).

3.Infusum Rosae Compositum, N.F., 1.3 p.c., + diluted sulphuric acid .9, sucrose 4, boiling water q.s. 100. Dose, 3ss-2 (15-60 cc.). 4. Pilulae Aloes et Mastiches, Lady Webster Dinner Pills, N.F., ½ gr. (.03 Gm.).

Unoff. Preps.: Infusion, 3.5 p.c. Infusum Rosae Acidum (Br.) 2.5 p.c., + diluted sulphuric acid 1.25, water q.s. 100.

Properties

Similar to tannin; tonic, mild astringent, carminative.

Uses

Uterine and other hemorrhages, aphthae, ulcers of mouth, ears, anus, inflamed eyes, chapped hands, burns, flavoring vehicle, perfumery; ointment -- soothing, emollient application to the skin, chapped hands and lips, abrasions, ulcers, frost-bite, etc.