R. Damasce'na, Damascus Rose. -- The volatile oil distilled from fresh flowers, U.S.P. 1830-1900; India, N. Africa, S. France, Bulgaria (Roumelia). Plant, prickly, resembling the ordinary rose bush, cultivated in hedge-like rows on southern slope of Balkan Mountains. Oil (otto, attar, essence of rose) pale yellow, transparent liquid, fragrant rose odor, mild sweetish taste, sp. gr. 0.860, alcohol (70 p.c.) precipitates stearoptene but dissolves eleoptene, congeals at 18-22 degrees C. (65-72 degrees F.); consists of solid portion (stearoptene) 12-14 p.c., being a mixture of odorless hydrocarbons, CH, etc., and a liquid portion (eleoptene) composed of (1) geraniol (rhodinol), CHO, 75 p.c., most fragrant, oxidized into aldehyde, citral rhodinal), readily soluble in alcohol, (2) citronellol, CHO, small amount; when congealed should be liquefied by warming before dispensing.  Adulterations: Spermaceti, paraffin (crystallize in opaque crust), fixed oils, volatile oils of guaiacwood, palmarosa, rose geranium, etc. -- having one or more similar ingredients (geraniol, etc.), recognized by congealing point and saponification value (10-17); synthetic rose oils -- now largely manufactured as a subtitute.  Stimulant, carminative, aromatic; chiefly in perfumery, flavoring.