Myristica fragrans, Houltuym. The dried ripe seed deprived of seed-coat -- the kernel, with or without thin coating of lime, yielding not less than 25 p.c. non-volatile, ether-soluble extractive, nor more than .5 p.c. acid-insoluble ash.

Habitat. Molucca Islands; cultivated in tropics, India, Philippine Islands, Amboyna, Boura, New Guinea, E. Indies, W. Indies, S. America, Ceylon, Sumatra, Java, etc.

Syn. Myrist., Nutmeg. Round Nutmeg; Fr. Muscade des Moluques, Noix Muscade, Nux Muschata, Nuces Nucistae; Ger. Semen Myriaticae, Muskatnusa, Myriaticassamen.

My-ris'ti-ca. L. See etymology, page 190, of Myristicaceae.

Fra'grans. L. fragran(t)s, sweet-scented -- i.e., from its fragrant odor.

Nut'met. OE, nut + musk, corrupted into meg -- i.e., from its odor.

Plant

Evergreen tree 7.5-15 M. (25-60 degrees) high, much branched, bark brownish-gray, smooth, young branches green; leaves leathery, smooth, entire, 10-15 Cm. (4-6') long, acute at both ends, prominently veined, dark green; flowers dioecious, small, yelow, fruit pendulous, smooth, yellow, 7.5 Cm. (3') long, 5 Cm. (2') wide, resenbling a peach, but grooved by a longitudinal furrow, pericarp, 12 Mm. (1/2') thick, tough, fleshy, with astringent juice, yellowish-white, dehiscing from above along the furrow into 2 equal valves that become dry and coriacous when ripe, and from between which readily falls out the erect, blunt, single seed closely enveloped, reticulately furrowed and almost completely covered by an irregularly cut fleshy arillus (mace); when deprived of this latter the seed-testa is dark brown, hard, thick, smooth, shining, woody; inner seed-coat thin, membranous, pale brown. KERNEL (myristica, nutmeg), ovoid, ellipsoidal, 20-30 Mm. (4/5-1 1/5') long, 15-20 Mm. (3/5-4/5') thick, light brown, retuculately furrowed from the tightly oppressed arillus, brown end with large circular, upraised scar from which arises a groove extending to a depression at opposite end (chalaza), easily cut, surface having waxy luster, mottled from light brown perisperm penetraing into the yellowish-brown endosperm; longitudinal section through endosperm above large scar shows cavity with shrunken remains of embryo and usually with a growth of mold; odor characteristically aromatic; taste pungently aromatic.

Powder

reddish-brown -- fragments of perisperm with reservoirs containing volatile oil, parenchyma cells filled with aleurone and starch grains, .003-.02 Mm. (1/8325-l/1250') broad -- blue with iodine T.S., whereas starch in mace--yellowish-red; occasional tracheae; mounts in chloral hydrate T.S. -- shows numerous globules of fixed oil, which may separate in rod-like crystals; mounts in fixed oil--show separated aggregates of crystals which strongly polarize light; powder from "limed" nutmegs under microscope, upon adding water containing 25 p.c. of sulphuric acid--show separation of calcium sulphate crystals (needles, short rods) which do not polarize light. Some accept the hard testa and kernel as the seed, like peach seed, but the U.S.P. recognizes solely the kernel or nucleus, that central part left after the fleshy portion, arillus, and hard testa have been removed. Those that are broken, of light weight, feeble odor and taste, musty, wormy and black-veined should be rejected. Solvents: alcohol; ether. Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.).

Adulterations

Kernels

Rare -- those punctured, boiled, and plugged, recognized by lightness, insect ravages, and pegs (on breaking open); also false nutmegs, in spite of easy detection; Papua (large), Macassar (small) -- M. Fatua and M. Argentea -- both longer, more narrow and pointed, the former with little aroma after drying, the latter more brittle and aromatic, and furrowed with 4 broad stripes. POWDER (GROUND): Common -- partially or wholly exhausted refuse, from percolation or ditillation.

Commercial

Plant prefers light soil, shade, and moist climate, produces fruit when 8-9 years old, matures at 25, and yields annually for 60-70 years. Fruit was unknown to the ancients, Avicenna being the first to notice it, and is collected when split on one or both sides, the first to notice it, and is collected when split on one or both sides, Sept.-Dec., (also April-June) by means of a hook on a long pole, or by hand, placed into baskets, pericarp and arillus removed, and the seed, spread on frames to dry by sun or fire at 60 degrees C. (140 degrees F.), being turned over every few days for 2 months. When kernels rattle in the shells, the latter are cracked off with mallets, and the former assorted, the best being rubbed over with powdered lime and packed in white-washed casks or chests for market. The Chinese are supplied with uncracked seed, while inferior grades are utilized for expressing the fixed oil. There are several varieties: 1, Unlimed (Brown, Penang, Singapore), as above described, sometimes oily to the touch, and mixed with clove; 2. Limed (Dutch, Batavian), prepared in the Banda Islands by steeping the dried seed for a short time in a mixture of salt water and lime (a protection against insect attacks, and possibly to kill the embryo thereby restricting the culture to their own provinces), then exposing to the sun several days and packing for market; 3, Artificial, prepared by compressing a mixture of earthy and powdery matter, being less aromatic than the genuine, also soft and crumbly when in boiling water 3 minutes; contains volatile oil 2 p.c., fat 15 p.c., ash 11-18 p.c.

Constituents

Volatile oil 2-8-15 p.c., fixed oil 25-30 p.c., starch, proteins, mucilage, ash 2-5 p.c.

Oleum Myristicae. Oil of Myristica, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Ol. Myrist., Myristica Oil, Oil of Nutmeg, Oleum Nucistae Aethereum; Fr. Essence de Muscade; Ger. Oleum Macidis, Aetherisches Muskatnussol.) This volatile oil, distilled from the dried kernels of the ripe seed with water or steam, is a colorless, pale yellow liquid, characterisic odor and taste of nutmeg; soluble in alcohol (1), in 90 p.c. alcohol (3), sp. gr. 0.859-0.924, dextrorotatory; contains d-pinene and d-camphene 80 p.c., dipentene 8 p.c., eugenol, safrol, myristicol, CH0.  The nutmeg camphor (once thought to be myristin), which sometimes settles on standing, is myistic acid.  Tests: 1. Evaporate 3 Gm. on water-bath -- residue .06 Gm.  2. Recently distilled oil in alcohol (1)--neutral or only slightly acid.  Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mij-3 (.13-.2 cc.).

Fixed Oil. (Oleum Hyristicae Expressum, Oleum Nucistae.) -- Obtained by bruising nutmegs, exposing them in a bag to steam, and expression between heated plates; the oil runs out a liquid, but congeals upon cooling; often called nutmeg butter, and improperly oil of mace; it is an orange-brown solid, sp. gr. 0.995, melting at 45 degrees C. (113 degrees F.), soluble in hot ether (2), hot alcohol (4); consists mainly of myristin, with some myristic acid, palmitin, olein, resin, volatile oil 6 p.c.  Dose, gr. 2-5 (.13-.3 Gm.).

Preparations

I. SEED: 1. Tinctura Lavandulae Composita, 1 p.c.  2. Tinctura Rhei Aromatica, 2 p.c.  3. Pulvis Aromaticus, N.F., 15 p.c.  4. Pulvis Cretae Aromaticus, N.F., 6 p.c.  5. Syrupus Sennae Aromaticus, N.F., 1/5 p.c.  II OIL: 1. Spiritus Ammoniae Aromaticus, 2/20 p.c.  2. Elixir Pepsini et Rennini Compositum, N.F., 1/100 p.c.  3. Mistura Oleo-Balsamica, N.F., 2/5 p.c. Spiritus Myristicae (Br.), 20 p.c.  Dose, mv-20 (.3-1.3 cc.).

Properties

Stimulant, stomachic, narcotic, flavoring, condiment, increases gastric juice, digestion, appetite; large doses, like camphor, act on the cerebrum, causing stupor, delirium.

Uses

Flatulence, gastric debility, diarrhea, dysentery, vomiting, colic, dyspepsia, flavoring, condiments.

Allied Products

1. Macis, Mace. -- The arillode of the seed of Myristica fragrans, U.S.P. 1850-1900.  When fruit first gathered the fleshy pericarp is removed, the thin coating (arillode) enveloping the seed peeled off with a knife, then sprinkled with salt water, as a preservative, and dried by sun or fire; or it may be allowed to remain on the seed until thoroughly dry, when it freely cracks and peels off.  It is a brilliant, scarlet (fresh), or brownish-orange (dry), brittle, in narrow bands, 2.5 Cm. (1') long, branched, lobed above fatty when scratched or pressed, fracture short, showing many oil-cells; odor fragrant; taste warm, aromatic; contains volatile oil (oleum macidis) 4-9-17-35 p.c., resin 25 p.c., sugar 1 p.c., amylodextrin 1.8 p.c., fixed oil, mucilage, proteins (no starch), ash 1-3 p.c.; solvent: alcohol.  Tinctura Macidis, 20 p.c. (alcohol).  Adulterations: Common (entire and powdered) -- nutmeg, starch, ginger, and mace of M. Malabar'ica and M. Fatua; this latter readily being detected by darker reddish color, more fatty, resinous, lustrous surface, weaker taste and odor, yielding 10 times more ether-extract, and microscopic specimen turning dark brown with potassium hydroxide solution, becoming yellow with sulphuric acid.  Stimulant, tonic, flavoring.  Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.).

2. False, Long, Wild, Male Nutmegs -- M. Fat'ua and M. Argen'tea. -- These are 4-5 Cm. (1 3/5-2') long, paler and less aromatic than official, the mace inodorous and less deeply lobed.