Ipomoea orizabensis, Ledenois. The dried root, yielding not less than 15 p.c. total resins nor more than 3 p.c. acid-insoluble ash.

Habitat. Mexico -- eastern slopes of Mexican Andes, rainy atmosphere.

Syn. Ipom., Orizaba Jalap Root, Mexican Scammony Root, Fusiform, Light, or Woody Jalap; Br. Ipomoea Radix.

Ip-o-momos'a. L. Fr. Gr...., ..., a worm, bindweed, + ..., like, resembling -- i.e., from the stems' twining habit, resembling the contortions of a worm.

O-ri-sa-ben'sis. L. of or belonging to Oriza'ba, a Mexican city, around which it grows and is collected.

Plant

A climbing vine resembling closely our common "Morning glory," I. purpu'rea; stem cylindrical, villous; leaves large, petiolate, cordate, acuminate, villous on veins; corolla campanulate, reddish-purple; fruit capsule, 2-locular, 1-seeded. ROOT, large, .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) long, fusiform, branching, yellowish, internally whitish; usually in nearly flat transverse slices, 2-12 Cm. (4/5-5') broad, 1-5.5 Cm. (2/5-2 1/5') thick, brownish, deeply wrinkled, fracture tough, fibrous, cut surface light brown, showing concentric rings from which coarse fibers protrude; odor distinct, aromatic; taste slightly sweet, acrid.

Powder

light grayish-brown--starch grains, .003-.035 Mm. (1/8325-1/710') broad, numerous calcium oxalate crystals, mostly in rosette aggregates, occasionally rhombohedra; fragments of yellowish-brown resin cells, tracheae, wood-fibers, Solvent: alcohol. Dose, gr 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.).

Commercial

Ipomoea root has been made official to replace the more acceptable Levant Scammony Root for some years unobtainable. The two roots differ strikingly in marketable form, Ipomoea being cut when fresh into disks, rapidly dried in the sun, and shipped from Mexico City; internally unlike scammony in not being mottled, in showing regular concentric wood-bundles, in having no stone cells, and calcium oxalate crystals in rosette aggregates rather than monoclinic prisms.

Constituents

Resin (jalapin, orizabin) 15-18.5 p.c. (75-90 p.c. ether-soluble), starch, gum, tannin, ash 9.89 p.c.

Preparations

1. Resina Ipomoeae. Resin of Ipomea. (Syn., Res. Ipom.; Br. Scammoniae Resina, Scammony Resin.)

Manufacture

Macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with alcohol until percolate when dropped into water produces only slight turbidity, reclaim alcohol until percolate reduced to a thin syrup, and pour this slowly, stirring constantly, into hot water 100 cc., let resin subside, decant supernatant liquid, wash resin twice by decantation, each time with hot water 100 cc., dry on water-bath. It is in translucent, brownish masses, fragments; fracture resinous, glossy; odor characteristic; soluble in alcohol, chloroform, ether (80-90 p.c.), petroleum benzin loses not more than 1 p.c. (abs. of water). 2. Dissolves in ammonia T.S. (5) or potassium hydroxide T.S. (5) with turbidity -- not gelatinous on standing; these solutions, + little hydrochloric acid -- only slight turbidity (abs.of rosin, guaiac, other resins). 3. Triturated with distilled water -- latter not colored, as it dissolves none of the resin (abs. of soluble impurities), nor does it acquire bitter taste (abs. of aloin). Impurities: Rosin, guaiac, aloin, water-soluble substances, other resins. Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.).

Preps.: 1. Extractum Colocynthidis Compositum, 14 p.c. 2. Tinctura Jalapae Composita, N.F., 3 p.c.

Properties

Hydragogue, cholagogue cathartic: Root seldom employed internally; resin similar to that of scammony, but a greater irritant and nauseant which may be overcome by combination with other cathartics, and aromatics.

Uses

Dropsies, cerebral affections, torpid intestines with slimy mucus.

Poisoning

Same as for aloe, colocynth, jalap, etc.

Ipomoe'a pandura'ta (Convolvulus pandura'tus), Wild Potato or Jalap, Man Root, Man of the Earth. -- The root, U.S.P. 1820-1850; United States. Plant recognized by its fiddle-shaped leaves, stem purplish, climbing 3.5-4.5 M. (12-15 degrees) high; flowers campanulate, white, purplish; root conical, .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) long, 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') thick, in slices, wrinkled, brownish-yellow, milky inside, bark thin with a zone of resin-cells, odor slight, taste sweetish, bitter, acrid; contains resin 1-2 p.c. (glucoside). Diuretic, cathartic in strangury, calculi. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).

I. Sim'ulans, Tampico Jalap. -- Root irregularly globular or elongated, deeply wrinkled, no transverse ridges -- as in the official; yields resin (tampicin) 10-15 p.c., nearly all being soluble in ether, and believed identical with resin of scammony.