Ju'glans cine'rea, Juglans, Butternut Bark, N.F. -- Juglandaceae. -- The dried inner bark of the root, with not more than 2 p.c. of adhering wood or other foreign organic matter; United States, Canada. Handsome spreading tree, 9-15 M. (30-50 degrees) high, light gray bark, durable brown wood; leaves imparipinnate; flowers -- staminate and pistillate; fruit large, oblong drupe, 6 Cm. (2 2/5') long, hairy, viscid, green then brown; seed thick, oily, edible. Root-bark (liber) in quills, curved strips, chips, 3-10 Mm. (1/8-2/5') thick, deep brown throughout, outer surface smooth, warty, inner surface smooth, striate; fracture short, weak; odor faintly aromatic; taste bitter, astringent, acrid. Powder, dark brown -- calcium oxalate rosette crystals, starch grains, stone cells, sometimes with reddish content, crystal-fibers, tannin, oily drops; contains juglandic acid (juglone, nucin -- oxynaphtoquinone), fixed oil 14 p.c., volatile oil, resin, tannin, ash 8 p.c. Cathartic (resembling rhubarb), mild hepatic stimulant; malaria, chronic constipation, dysentery. Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Juglandis (lst menstruum: glycerin 10, alcohol 50, water 40; 2d diluted alcohol): Prep.: 1. Elixir Cascarae Sagradae Compositum, 6.5 p.c. Juglandin ("Eclectic" resinoid), gr. 3-10 (.2-.6 Gm.).

J. re'gia, English Walnut. -- Persia, Himalayas, China, cultivated, Europe. Decoction of leaves used in leucorrhea, meningitis; decoction of leaves, rind, or bark in checking mammary secretion, ulcers, diarrhea, sore mouth, tonsils, uterine hemorrhages, carbuncles. J. ni'gra, Black Walnut.--Bark styptic, acrid; used mostly in dyeing. The rind of green fruit removes ringworms, tetter, diphtheria. Decoction used as a vermifuge; spirit made by distilling fresh walnuts with alcohol; used in hysteric, cerebral and pregnant vomiting. All of these fruits contain much fixed oil, which turns red with nitric acid, but brown with nitric and sulphuric acids.