Juniperus communis, Linne'. A volatile oil distilled from the dried ripe fruit.

Habitat.  N. America (Canada, N. United States), Asia, Europe, N. Africa; dry woods,  hills.

Syn.  Juniper Bush, Juniper Berries, Fructus (Bassae) Juniperi; Fr. Genievre, Baies de  Genievre; Ger. (Gemeiner) Wachholderbeeren; Ol, Junip., Juniper Oil, Oil of Juniper  Berries, Oleum Fructus (Baccae) Juniperi, Fr. Essence de Genievre; Ger. Wachholder  (beer) ol.

Ju-nip'e-rus.  L. fr. Celtic juniperus, rough -- i.e., its foliage; or fr L. Juvenis, young, +  parere, to produce -- i.e., young fruit, leaves, etc., are continually replacing the old.

Com-mu'nis.  L. common, general -- i.e., the usual or ordinary kind.

Plant

Evergreen shrub 2-5 M. (6-15 degrees) high, with many close branches, some often prostrate; leaves narrow, longer than fruit, 12 Mm. (1/2') long, in whorls of 3's, sharp-pointed, channeled, deep green; flowers dioecious -- staminate catkins, pistillate cones.  Fruit (galbulus) -- Juniperus, Juniper Berry, N.F.  The carefully dried ripe fruit with not more than 10 p.c. of immature or discolored berries and 3 p.c. of foreign organic matter.  It is nearly globular, 8 Mm. (1/3') thick, blackish-purple, blue-gray bloom, apex 3-furrowed -- cohesion of 3 fleshy bracts; internally loosely fleshy, many schizogenous cavities, 3 ovate seed, oil-glands on surface, ripens second year; odor aromatic; taste sweet, pleasant, terebinthinate, bitter.  Powder, dark brown -- stone cells, calcium oxalate prisms, polygonal cells, aleurone grains, oil globules, resin masses.

Constituents

Volatile oil .5-2.5 p.c., sugar 15-30 p.c., resin 10 p.c., juniperin, proteins 4 p.c., fat, wax, malates, formic and acetic acids.

Oleum Juniperi.  Oil of Juniper. -- Obtained from the dried ripe fruit by distillation with salt and water, or steam; it is a colorless, faintly green or yellow liquid, characteristic odor and taste of juniper berries, soluble in 4 vols. of alcohol with not more than slight cloudiness, neutral, slightly acid, sp. gr. 0.870, levorotatory; contains chiefly pinene, CH, with some cadinene, CH, juniper camphor, and an ester to which odor and taste are due.  Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mv-15 (.3-1 cc.).

Preparations

Berry

1.  Fluidextractum Juniperi, N.F. (80 p.c. alcohol), dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.): Prep.: 1. Elixir Buchu, Juniperi et Potassi Acetatis, N.F., 7.5 p.c.  2. Fluidextractum Buchu Compositum, N.F., 12.5 p.c.: Prep.: 1. Elixir Buchu Compositum, N.F. 25 p.c. Extract: Infusion; Succus Juniperi Inspissatus (Ger.), 20 p.c.  OIL: 1. Acetum Aromaticum, N.F., 1/20 p.c. Spirit, 5 p.c. + alcohol, 3j-4 (4-15 cc.).  Compound Spirit, 2/5 p.c. -- oil of juniper 2/5 p.c., oil of caraway 1/20, oil of fennel 1/2, 70 p.c. alcohol q.s. 100 cc., 3j-4 (4-15 cc. -- substitute for gin.).

Properties

Similar to turpentine; stimulant, diuretic, anodyne, emmenagogue, carminative, stomachic, antiseptic.

Uses

Renal dropsy, vesical catarrh, rheumatic pains, swellings.

Juniperus oxycedrus. JUNIPERUS OXYCEDRUS. PRICKLY CEDAR.