Piper ni'grum, Piper, Pepper, Black Pepper, N.F. -- The dried unripe fruit with not more than 2 p.c. of stems or other foreign matter, yielding not less than 6 p.c. of non-volatile extract, soluble in ether; S. Asia; cultivated. Perennial woody, evergreen climber; leaves 10-15 Cm. (4-6') long, ovate, entire, smooth, leathery, dark green, 5-7-nerved; flowers, spikes, whitish. Fruit, berry-like -- green, red, yellow (ripe), nearly globular, 3.5-6 Mm. (1/7-1/4') broad, epicarp thin, easily separable from sarcocarp, grayish-black, coarsely reticulate, unilocular, 1-seeded, seed nearly white, hollow, adhering to pericarp; odor aromatic, slightly empyreumatic; taste aromatic, very pungent. Powder, grayish-black -- fragments of pericarp -- blackish-brown, of perisperm and embryo -- whitish, starch grains, stone cells (epicarp) with reddish-brown pigment, or (endocarp) with reddish-brown substance; oil cells with yellowish oil that may separate piperine prisms; solvents: ether, acetone, alcohol, water partially; contains piperine 5-8 p.c., piperidine .56 p.c., volatile oil 1-2 p.c., resin (pungent), chavicin, piperic acid, starch 25-45 p.c., fixed oil 7 p.c. The commercial oil of black pepper (Oleum Piperis), a by-product in making piperine, consists of the volatile oil, fixed oil, and pungent resin -- practically the oleoresin. Stimulant, tonic, antiperiodic, carminative, rubefacient; intermittents, colic, indigestion, flatulence; gargle for throat; gums; plaster for rheumatism; universal condiment. There are several varieties: 1, Malabar -- heaviest; 2, Penang -- strongest; 3, Singapore -- darkest; 4, Straits Settlements -- chief and best; the first three suitably mixed furnish popular trade brands. Adulterations. -- FRUIT: That of allied species, stalks, siftings, grape seeds, ivory nut, cinnamon, mace.
starch, flour, mustard, husks, flaxseed, capsicum -- all recognized by microscope. Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.); 1. Tinctura Antiperiodica, 1/30 p.c. Oleoresin, 5-6.5 p.c., mss-2 (.03-.13 cc.). Fluidextract, mv-20 (.3-1.3 cc.).