R. Cathar'tica, Buckthorn Berries, Baccae Spinae Cervinae, N.F. -- The dried ripe fruit with not more than 5 p.c. of unripe fruit or other foreign organic matter; Europe, N. Asia -- naturalized in N. America. Small tree 3-4.5 M. (10-15 degrees) high, short branches, thorny; leaves 2/5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, 2.5 Cm. (1') broad; flowers greenish. Fruit, Sept., size of a pea, flattened, globoid, 4-8 Mm. (1/6-1/3') broad, purplish-black, wrinkled, 3-4-celled, each cell with a brown seed-like nutlet -- pedical lacking; odor faint, unpleasant; taste sweetish, then nauseating, bitter; colors saliva -- purplish-red; unripe fruit -- discarded, greenish-brown, firm, furrowed, pedicel attached, very bitter. Powder, dark brown -- epidermal cells parenchyma--some with an amorphous substance, calcium oxalate rosettes, sarcocarp cells, some with yellow oily content; stone cells, calcium oxalate prisms, fixed oil, aleurone grains; solvent: diluted alcohol; contains emodin-autranol, gesterin, rhamnocathartin (a glucoside of emodin) -- emodin, rhamnonigrin, resin (containing emodin), rhamnose, glucose, fixed oil, quercetin and rhamnin (yellow coloring matter), ash 5 p.c. Cathartic -- similar to cascara sagrada; chiefly in veterinary practice. Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Rhamni Catharticae, 20 p.c., + ol. foenic., 1/60, ol. cinnam, 1/50, syrup q.s.100, dose, 3j-3 (4-12 cc.). Decoction, 5 p.c. -- expressed juice made into syrup. Fresh juice with alum or lime yields the pigment -- sap green, R. carolinia', Carolina (Southern) Buckthorn, New York-Texas, is a shrub or small tree; leaves oblong, serrate;flowers short-peduncled; fruit purple, 3-seeded.