Rhamnus Frang'ula, Frangula, Buckthorn Bark, N.F. -- The dried bark with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; Europe, N. Asia -- hedges. Slender straggling bush, 3-4.5 M. (10-15 degrees) high, non-thorny; leaves oval, entire; flowers whitish; fruit (berry) size of a pea; green, white, yellow, pink, red, finally black; 2-3-seeded. Bark, varying length quills, frequently flattened, crushed; .5-1 Mm. (1/50-1/25') thick, purplish-black, numerous light-colored transverse lenticels, occasional lichens; inner surface smooth, brownish, purplish blotches, striate -- red with solution of alkalies; fracture short, inner layer fibrous; odor distinctive; taste slightly bitter. Powder, yellowish-brown -- cork and parenchyma tissue, calcium oxalate rosettes, bast-fibers with yellowish lignified walls, crystal-fibers with calcium oxalate prismatic crystals, starch grains; no stone cells (dist. from R. Purshiana); solvent: diluted alcohol; contains frangulin, CHO (rhamnoxanthin) .04 p.c. -- by hydrolysis yields emodin and rhamnose, CHO, while emodin, CHO, + rhamnose = frangulin + water; also emodin 1-3.8 p.c., isoemodin, frangulic acid, chrysophan, resin, tannin, ash 5-6 p.c.  Purgative, tonic, diuretic -- when fresh emetic, severe intestinal irritant causing much pain, when modified by age resembles rhubarb, senna, although milder; dropsy, costiveness, constipation of pregnancy (fldext. Mxx (1.3 cc.) ter die); parasitic skin affection -- itch, etc. (ointment of fresh bark).  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Frangulae (exhaust with boiling water, add one-fourth alcohol  --  preservtive), dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.): Prep.: 1. Elixir Catharticum Compositum, 12.5 p.c. + fldext. senn. 10, fldext. rhei 6.2, liq. pot. hydrox. .45, sp. menth. pip. 1.4, elix. arom. q.s. 100, dose 3j-4 (4-15 cc.).  Decoction, 5 p.c., 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.); Extract, gr. 2-8 (.13-.5 Gm.).