R. Idae'us, or R. strigo'sus; Rubi Idaei Fructus, Raspberry, N.F. -- The fresh, ripe fruit of several varieties; Europe, N. Asia, N. America. Shrub 2 M. (6 degrees) high, glaucous, spinose; leaves imparipinnate, 1-3 pairs, sessile, ovate, serrate, whitish, downy leaflets; flowers white, 5's. Fruit, deprived of conical receptacle (hollow base), globular, hemispherical, composed of 20-30 small, rounded polygonal, succulent drupelets (aggregate fruit), pericarps red, numerous non-globular hairs, mesocarps fleshy, juice red, parenchyma with calcium oxalate rosettes, endocarps small stones, wrinkled; odor characteristic, aromatic; taste pleasant, sweet, acidulous. Black Raspberries, the fresh ripe fruit of varieties of R. occidenta'lis, may be substituted for pharmaceutical purposes, either in part or wholly for Red Raspberries; most of these plants grow wild and under cultivation throughout N. America, supplying fruit that is in great demand, and a juice that ferments into wine, which upon distillation yields brandy more or less popular in bowel affections; contains volatile oil (trace), citric acid, malic acid, sugar 5 p.c., pectin, coloring matter. Refrigerant, mild laxative, dietetic; used as edible fruit and for preparing syrup; 1. Syrupus Rubi Idaei; add to every 100 cc. of clear, boiled, filtered juice, 200 Gm. sucrose: Preps.: 1. Elixir Bromidorum Quinque, 15 p.c. 2. Elixir Gentianae Glycerinatum, 6 p.c. 5. Quilla'ja Sapona'ria, Quillaja, Soap (Tree) Bark, N.F. -- The dried inner bark with not more than 5 p.c. of outer bark nor 1 p.c. of foreign organic matter; Chile, cult. in N. Hindustan. Tree 15-18 M. (50-60 degrees) high; leaves oval, evergreen, coriaceous; flowers white, monoecious; fruit capsule with persistent calyx, many seeded. Bark in flat piecees of variable length, 3-8 Mm. (1/8-1/3') thick, or small chips, brownish-white, often with cork patches, nearly smooth, occasional depressions, conical projections or channels; inner surface yellowish-white; fracture uneven, strongly fibrous; odor slight, taste acrid. Powder, pinkish-white, very sternutatory -- elongated calcium oxalate prisms, irregular crystal-fibers with thick lignified walls, medullary rays, stone cells, starch grains, cork cells with brownish walls; solvents: alcohol, hot water; contains saponin (quillajic acid, CHO + quillaja-sapotoxin, CHO), CHO, 9 p.c., starch, gum, sucrose, calcium oxalate and sulphate. Stimulant, diuretic, expectorant, irritant, sternutatory, detergent, local anesthetic, antipyretic, paralyzant to heart and respiration, irritant to respiratory passages, poison to voluntary muscles; like senega; bronchitis, coryza, rhinitis, emulsifying agent, eruptions, scalp sores, fetor of feet, hair tonics, washing silks. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); 1. Tinctura Quillajae, 20 p.c. (boiling water, then 35 p.c. alcohol); dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.); 2. Liquor Picis Carbonis, 10 p.c. Fluidextract, mv-15 (.3-1 cc.).