Ru'bus villo'sus, R. nigrobac'cus, R. cuneifo'lius, + Eubatus section, Rubus, Blackberry Bark, N.F. -- The dried bark of the rhizome and roots with not more than 10 p.c. of adhering wood nor 3 p.c. of other foreign organic matter; N. America, fields, thickets, cult. Pubescent perennials; stems angular, woody, with stout recurved prickles; leaflets 3-5, ovate, cuneate, petiolate, serrate, rough above, pubescent beneath, 2.5-10 Cm. (1-4') long; flowers white, racemes; fruit (aggregate drupe --carpels 20 + ), 12-25 Mm. (1/2-1') long, black, pulpy, delicious. Bark of rhizome 1-2 Mm. (1/25-1/12') thick, in long, tough, flexible bands or quills, 3-6 Mm. (1/8-1/4') broad, brownish, grayish-brown, smooth or scaly, inner surface yellowish, coarsely striate, fracture tough-fibrous, readily splitting; inodorous; taste strongly astringent, bitterish. Powder, dark brown-cortical parenchyma, calcium oxalate rosettes, many simple and compound starch grains, cork tissue; solvents: boiling water, diluted alcohol; contains tannin 12-17.5 p.c., gallic acid .4 p.c., villosin (saponin) .8 p.c., resin 7 p.c., volatile oil, fixed oil, wax, ash 3 p.c. Astringent, tonic similar to tannin; diarrhea--children and adults in summer. Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Rubi (diluted alcohol), dose, mx-60 (.6-4 cc.): Prep.: 1. Syrupus Rubi, 25 p.c., dose, 3j-4 (4-15 cc.). Decoction, 5 p.c. (water or milk), 3j-2 (30-60 cc.); Syrup of fruit (juice 100, sucrose 200 -- heat); Wine; Brandy.