Taraxacum, Leon'todon Tarax'acum, Dandelion, N.F. -- The dried rhizome and roots with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 4 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash; Europe, naturalized in N. America. Perennial acaulescent herb; leaves radical, 15-22.5 Cm. (6-9') long, 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') broad, toothed (runcinate), 5-6 teeth on a side, sessile; flowers golden-yellow, closing at night, terminal upon hollow scape; fruit achene, compressed; spreading pappus on stalk -- for dissemination. Rhizome, cylindrical, somewhat flattened gradually tapering, usually in broken pieces, 6-15 Cm. (2 2/5-6') long, 5-15 Mm. (1/5-3/5') thick, brownish, longitudinaly wrinkled, numerous root- and rootlet-scars; crown simple, branched, with many leaf-bases showing annulate markings; bark 2-6 Mm. (1/12-1/4') thick, composed of concentric layers of laticiferous vessels and sieve tissues, alternating with whitish inulin-bearing parenchyma; odor slight, inodorous, taste bitter. Powder, light brown -- parenchyma cells large, thin-walled containing irregular masses of inulin; fragments with yellowish-brown laticiferous vessels, tracheae reticulate, intermediate fibers non-lignified, with pores, no starch; solvents: diluted alcohol, boiling water; contains milk juice (taraxacin, taraxacerin, 2 resins, glutinous body), reducing sugars, levulin, inulin (yellow with iodine) 24 p.c., pectin, ash 5-10 p.c. Diuretic, tonic, stomachic, aperient, deobstruent; congestion of liver, spleen, dydpepsia, constipation, skin affections, dropsies. Adulterations: Chiefly chicory, Cichorium Intybus, which, however, is paler and with milk vessels in radiating lines -- not concentric. Subject to insect attack, and should be kept in tightly closed containers. Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Gm.); 1. Extractum Taraxaci (12.5 p.c. alcohol), dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.); 2. Fluidextractum Taraxaci (glycerin 10, alcohol 50, water 40 + diluted alcohol), dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.).
Preps.: 1. Elixir Taraxaci Compositum, 3.5 p.c. + fldext. prun. virg. 2, fldext. glycyrrh., tr. aurant. dulc. aa 6, +, dose, 3j-2 (4-8 c.).
Preps.: 1. Elixir Eriodict. Arom., 44 p.c. 2. Elixir Guaranae, 60 p.c. 3. Elixir Viburni Opuli Compositum, 70 p.c.
2. Elixir Gentianae Glycerinnatum, 15 p.c. Decoction 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.). Succus Taraxaci (Br.), extressed juice 3, alcohol 1, 3j-2 (4-8 c.).