Oleum Chaulmoograe. Chaulmoogra Oil, U.S.P.

Taraktogenos Kurzii, King, or certain species of Hydnocarpus. The fixed oil expressed from the seeds.

Habitat. S. Asia; India, Siam, Burma, China, Africa.

Syn. Kalan Tree; Ol. Chaulmoog., Chaulmugra, Chaulmaugra, Oleum Gynocardiae; Fr. Huile de Chaulmougra (Chaulmougre); Ger. Chaulmugrool.

Ta-rak'to-ge'nos. L. fr. Gr. rapaktos, confused, disordered, jumbled up, + ..., genus, race -- i.e., genus that was overlooked and once confused with Hydnocarpus.

Kur'si-i. L. named by Prof. Geo. King (1890) in honor of Prof. Sulpiz Kura, author of Forest Flora of British Burma, and curator, Royal Botanical Gardens, Calcutta.

Hyd-no-car'pus. L. fr. Gr...., edible fungus-truffle, + ..., fruit -- i.e., alluding to superficial appearance of fruit.

Chaul-moo'gra. L. fr. native Asiatic (Burmese) name.

Plant

Large tree, 7-15 M. 21-40 degrees) high, smooth, pale yellowish bark, straight trunk, branches at right-angles, but drooping down; fruit size of large orange, light fawn color, velvety; seed numerous, irregularly imbedded in fleshy pulp, brownish-yellow, 2-3 Cm. (4/5- 1 1/5') long, more or less angular flattened, not as broad, roundish ends.

Constituents

Seeds

Fixed oil, 25-50 p.c., starch, proteins, tannin, coloring matter, ash 1-5 p.c.

Oleum Chaulmoograe. Oil of Chaulmoogra. - This fixed oil is a yellow, brownish-yellow liquid, or below 25 degrees C. (77 degrees F.), a whitish, soft solid, characteristic odor, somewhat acrid taste; soluble in benzene, chloroform, ether, petroleum benzin, sparingly in alcohol, sp. gr. 0.950; contains palmitin, linolein, but chiefly glycerides of two fatty acids -- chaulmoogric, CHO, and hydnocarpic, CHO; both acids are optically active but differ from ordinary fatty acids in having a five atom carbon ring with an unstable hydrogen atom; both acids are readily converted into ethyl esters having therapeutic advantages over the oil; both acids form crystals that melt at 60-68 degrees C. (140-155 degrees F.).  Tests: 1. Dissolve 1 Gm. In 15 cc. of a mixture of equal vols. alcohol and ether previously neutralized with N/10 sodium hydroxide, using 5 drops phenolphthalein T.S., indicator, when titrated with N/10 sodium hydroxide to pink color -- 1.8-5 cc. should be required (abs. of free acid); forms salts -- sodium chaulmoograte, sodium hydnocarpate, etc.  Should be kept cool, dark, in well-closed containers.  Dose, mv-30 (.3-2 cc.).

Aethylis ChaulmoograsEthyl Chaulmoograte, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Aethyl. Chaulmoog.; Fr. Chaulmougre d'ethyle; Ger. Chaulmestrol, Antileprol).  This mixture of ethyl esters of the fatty acids (chaulmoogric and hydnocarpic) of chaulmoogra oil, obtained by fractionating, is a clear, pale, yellow liquid, with slight fruity odor, miscible with alcohol, chloroform, ether, insoluble in water, sp. gr. 0.904.  Test: 1. 1 cc. in 10 cc. neutralized alcohol, using 2 drops phenolphthalein T.S. -- requires not more than .1 cc. N/10 sodium hydroxide for neutralization (abs. of free acid); its fluidity is its chief advantage over the oil, although it has a more agreeable taste and is less irritating when injected.  Should be kept in well-closed containers.  Dose (mouth, intramuscular injection), mxv-60 (1-4 cc.).

Adulterations

Various hydnocarpus oils not agreeing with physical and chemical properties of oil of chaulmoogra; gynocardia oil.

Commercial

The seeds are washed, dried in the sun, shelled, crushed and subjected to hydraulic pressure;yield 25-32 p.c. oil (best); extraction with ether or other volatile solvents -- 35-41 p.c.  There are several varieties: 1. True Oil of Chaulmoogra (Taraktogenos Kurzii); 2. Lukrabo Oil (Hydnocarpus anthelmin'tica), Siam, imported, as are the seeds, into China, where it is called Tafungtsze; 3. Oil from Hydnocarpus Wightia'na, synonymous with H. inebria'ns, yields a very similar and effective oil.

Properties

Alterative, germicide, antiseptic, counter-irritant, blood-purifier; large doses toxic to dogs and rabbits causing vomiting, loss of appetite (central origin), destructive of blood corpuscles (hemolytic); in fatal intoxication -- fatty degeneration of liver, irritation of kidneys; only two cases of fatty embolism of lungs, in man (hypodermic injection) -- no serious poisoning so far reported.

Uses

Leprosy -- practically a specific against Lep'ra bacil'lus, when it must be used freely, internally and externally for 2-3 years, supplemented by nourishing diet to maintain bodily vigor; action may be due to stimulation of leukocytosis, or to its powerful germicidal effect, exceeding 100 times that of phenol; may have solvent power on the waxy coating of acid-fast bacilli, and may be absorbed by alimentary tract; but intramuscular injection gives best results; hypodermic injections of ethyl esters into leprous nodules cause them to swell to an ultimate recession, 50 p.c. of the cases being curable; also used for sores, wounds, sprains, bruises, tuberculous ulcers of larynx, and with doubtful effect on Tubercle bacillus.