Chionanthus Virginica, Fringe Tree. This is a bark very difficult of manipulation pharmaceutically, and hence most of its preparations are unreliable. The eclectics have long prized it very highly, and Prof. Lloyd has developed for them an extract more satisfactory than is the fluidextract. It has been little used in regular medicine until a proprietary preparation brought it before the profession. In large doses it is a mild cholagogue cathartic, safe in employment for a few doses. Ec. tr., 20 I. for four doses, and then 10 I. at a dose if necessary to continue. In moderate doses (ec. tr., 5 to 10 I.) it liquefies the bile, prevents the formation of calculi, and is probably one of the very best remedies for jaundice not due to occlusion of the duct or to malignant growths. It is very sure in its action in the jaundice of gestation. Its action in chronic liver disease is most happy. In small doses it is combined with iris versicolor, and alternated with sodium phosphate, if necessary, in the treatment of sick headache, bilious headache, and those due to menstruation. It is quite effective in this connection. (Ec. tr., I to 3 I.)