This section is from the book "Botanic Drugs Their Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics", by Thomas S. Blair. Also available from Amazon: Botanic Drugs, Their Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Copaiba, Balsam of Copaiba, an oleoresin derived from Copaifera coriaceae, C. Guyanensis, C. Langsdorfii, and C. officinalis - all official as C. species.
Both the oleoresin and the oil of copaiba are apt to induce erythemata and cause indigestion. Santal has largely displaced them. They have been largely esteemed in the treatment of gonorrhea, the balsam in an average dose of 15 minims and the oil 8 minims, in capsules or in the form of emulsion. These agents are stimulants and antiseptics to the mucous membrane of the urinary tract.
Sterilization of the urinary tract is impossible, especially in gonorrhea, the bacteria being deeply lodged. Copaiba is relatively efficient, being excreted slowly and not being dangerously irritant; but it is useful only in more or less chronic forms of gonorrhea, and in gleet. Winternitz taught that this class of drug is effective more from decreasing the number of leucocytes in the exudate than from any antiseptic influence.