Grindelia Species official in the U. S. and four other countries. Grindelia robusta deleted from the ninth U. S. P., but G. camporum. G. Cuneifolia, and G. squarrosa retained or added. They are not generally recognized throughout the world.

The pharmacology, despite elaborate text-book descriptions, is not well defined; but it is similar to that of the terebinthinates and balsams. See "Abies." Also refer to the various balsams.

Therapeutics

Parallels that of the terebinthinates and balsams. See citations above. As an external application grindelia acts as do the resinous substances of its class, affording relief but not cure in herpes zoster, ivy poisoning, and other lesions relieved when protected from the air. In chronic bronchitis, coughs, and genito-urinary diseases, it acts as a terebinthinate and possesses no advantage over others of the group, and indeed it is inferior to several of them, as sufficient dosage of grindelia is apt to be irritating.

As a palliative in spasmodic and bronchial asthma, the drug is largely used, sometimes with success. Give 20 to 60 minims fl. in sweetened water or in milk. For a discussion of asthma, see "Lobelia."