This section is from the book "Dental Medicine. A Manual Of Dental Materia Medica And Therapeutics", by Ferdinand J. S. Gorgas. Also available from Amazon: Dental Medicine.
The suspension of the heart's action necessitates the immediate withdrawal of the vapor and the immediate inversion of the patient, according to Nelaton's method. The failure of respiration necessitates the forcing up of the chin, or the forcible drawing out of the tongue to lift the epiglottis; the practice of artificial respiration by the Sylvester method, and by faradization of the respiratory muscles; the inhalation of gtt. iij to gtt. iv of nitrite of amyl; ammonia to the nostrils; galvanism (the positive pole being placed to the nostril, and the negative pole over the diaphragm, to excite a reflex action between the fifth pair and the pneumo-gastric, or the poles may be placed directly over both phrenic nerves, on a line with the fourth cervical vertebra, in order to stimulate respirations; or one pole may be placed over the upper dorsal spinous process, and the other pole over the apex of the heart, to induce cardiac contraction). Artificial warmth should be applied, but no cold applications.
The inversion of the body according to Nelaton's method, and artificial respiration, according to Sylvester's method or Marshall Hall's ready method, or Howard's method, are safe and are the most promising expedients. A simple method of producing artificial respiration is as follows: -
"With outspread palms, press the front of the chest forcibly down, whilst an assistant at the same time presses the abdomen. Make these movements not oftener than fifteen times in the minute." dr. h. r. Sylvester's method of resuscitation.
"To Adjust the Patient's Position. - Place the patient on his back, on a flat surface; raise and support the head and shoulders on a small, firm cushion, or folded article of dress, placed under the shoulder-blades; remove all tight clothing about the neck and chest.
"To Maintain a Free Entrance of Air into the Windpipe.- Cleanse the mouth and nostrils; open the mouth; draw forward the patient's tongue and keep it forward; an elastic band over and under the chin will answer the purpose.
"To Imitate the Movements of Breathing: -
"First, Induce Inspiration. - Place yourself at the head of the patient; grasp his arms; raise them upward by the sides of his head; stretch them steadily but gently, upward and backward, for two seconds. By this means fresh air is drawn into the lungs, by raising the ribs.
"Secondly, Induce Expiration. - Immediately turn down the patient's arms, and press them firmly, but gently, downward against the sides of his chest, for two seconds. By this means foul air is expelled from the lungs, by depressing the ribs.
"Thirdly, Continue these Movements. - Repeat these movements alternately, deliberately and perseveringly, fifteen times in a minute, until a spontaneous effort to respire be perceived. By this means an exchange of air is produced in the lungs, similar to that effected by natural respiration."