Source. - Made by heating morphia in a closed tube, with concentrated hydrochloric acid, whereupon the alkaloid loses one molecule of water - Ci7Hl9NO3 = C17Hl7NO2 + H1O.

Characters. - A white powder, becoming green on exposure or in solution, without loss of its properties. Soluble in ether and alcohol. The hydrochlorate of apomorphia, which is generally used, occurs as minute greyish crystals, soluble in water. Solutions should be freshly prepared for use.

Dose of the hydrochlorates. - 1/10 to 1/6 gr., by the mouth; 1/20 to 1/10 gr., hypodermically.

Action And Uses

Apomorphia is the most certain of all emetics, acting upon the vomiting centre, and not on the stomach, i.e. being an indirect emetic. In from five to twenty minutes it induces moderate nausea, repeated vomiting, and the disturbances of the respiratory and circulatory organs, characteristic of this class of remedies. If the dose have been sufficient, the evacuation of the stomach is certain and complete. Larger doses cause prostration and paralysis of the voluntary muscles, depression of the respiratory centre, acceleration of the heart, and fall of temperature, Small doses are expectorant. Apomorphia may be used for the many purposes of emetics in general. Its special advantages consist in its certainty; the absence of local irritation of the stomach; the readiness with which it can be given hypodermi-cally, that is, to patients unable to swallow, as a small non-irritant injection; and the absence of after-effects. Its expectorant action has been but little employed.

Rhoeados Petala - Red-Poppy Petals. - The fresh petals of Papaver Rhoeas. From indigenous plants.

Characters. - Of a scarlet colour and heavy poppy odour.

Composition. - Red poppies contain a large quantity of colouring matter, readily soluble in water, consisting of two acids, papaveric and rhoeadic acids; also an alkaloid rhoeadin, C.21H11NO6, without narcotic properties. Red poppies contain no morphia.

Preparation.

Syrupus Rhoeados. - 1 in 3 1/2. Dose, 1 fl.dr.

Action And Uses. Syrup of red poppies is used as a colouring agent only.