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Materia Medica And Therapeutics: An Introduction to the National Treatment of Disease



This book is chiefly therapeutical in its scope, and is intended to be a rational guide to the student and practitioner of medicine in the treatment of disease. At the same time the Materia Medica has not been sacrificed. On the contrary, it will be found to be set forth in detail by the adoption of a natural and concise arrangement, which presents the subject in such a form that it can be quickly appreciated and easily remembered. The author attaches importance to the plan which he has adopted in the description of the Special Therapeutics, and which consists in systematically tracing the physiological action and uses of the different drugs in their passage through the body, from their first contact with it locally until they are eliminated in the secretion...

TitleMateria Medica And Therapeutics: An Introduction to the National Treatment of Disease
AuthorJohn Mitchell Bruce
PublisherCassell & Company, Limited
Year1884
Copyright1884, Cassell & Company, Limited
AmazonThe pharmacology and therapeutics of the materia medica

By John Mitchell Bruce, M.A. Aberd., M.D. Lond., >Fellow Of The Royal College Of Physicians ; Physician And Lecturer On Materia Medica And Therapeutics, Charing Cross Hospital; Assistant Physician To The Hospital For Consumption, Brompton.

To: Richard Quain, M.D., F.R.S., Chairman Of The Pharmacopceia Committee Of The General edical Council, Etc., Etc. This Work Is Dedicated,

In Admiration Of A Life Spent In The Interests Of Medicine And The Medical Profession, And In Grateful Acknowledgment Of Constant Personal Kindness During A Valued Friendship Of Many Years.

-Preface
This book is chiefly therapeutical in its scope, and is intended to be a rational guide to the student and practitioner of medicine in the treatment of disease. At the same time the Materia Medica has...
-Introduction
Materia Medica and Therapeutics relate to the use of drugs in the treatment of disease. The place which these subjects occupy in the Medical Sciences lies, therefore, between Chemistry, Botany, Anatom...
-Part I. - The Inorganic Materia Medica
Group 1. Alkalies and Alkaline Earths. 2. Metals. 3. Metalloids. 4. ...
-Part II. - The Organic Materia Medica
Group 1. The Vegetable Kingdom. 2. The Animal Kingdom. Each article will be discussed under several distinct and definite he...
-Part II. - The Organic Materia Medica. Part 2
Gums are exudations from the steins of plants. They consist of two rather complex carbohydrates, arabin, C12H12O11, and bassorin, C12H10O10, which play the part of acid radicals, and exist in gums as ...
-Part II. - The Organic Materia Medica. Part 3
4. Alcoholic extracts are prepared by the action of rectified spirit, rectified spirit and water, or proof spirit on dry drugs, and evaporation to a proper consistence. Ex.: Extractum Physostigmatis. ...
-Part II. - The Organic Materia Medica. Part 4
Vapores, Inhalations, are preparations administered in the form of vapour or gas, disengaged on the union of the ingredients. Vina, Wines, are solutions of drugs either in sherry (ex.: Vinum Ipecac...
-Part II. - The Organic Materia Medica. Part 5
Idiosyncrasy. - Before finally deciding, however, on certain drugs, idiosyncracy must not be forgotten; that is, the peculiar susceptibility of some individuals to the action of particular medicines, ...
-Part II. - The Organic Materia Medica. Part 6
6. Time Time. The times of the day or night at which the doses must be taken are of the first importance; and speaking generally, it may be said that every advantage must be taken in this respect o...
-Part 1. The Inorganic Materia Medica Group I - The Alkalies And Alkaline Earths
Of the alkalies and alkaline earths, potassium, sodium, ammonium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, and barium are used in medicine. These, together with their many salts, alone constitute a large proporti...
-Potassium. K. 39
The salts and preparations of potassium are most conveniently discussed in the following order: 1. Potsassae Carbonas Potsassae Carbonas. Carbonate of Potash, K2CO3, with about 16 per cent. of w...
-KHCO3. Potassium Bicarbonate
Source. - Made from a solution of the Carbonate in distilled water, by passing a stream of carbonic acid gas through it, and purifying the crystals which form. Characters. - Colourless right rhombi...
-KHCO3. Potassium Bicarbonate. Continued
Impurities. - Acid tartrate; detected by insolubility. Carbonates; by quantitative test. Dose. - 20 to 60 gr. as a diuretic and antacid; 2 to 4 dr. as a purgative. 3. Potassae Nitras Potassae...
-Action And Uses Of The Different Salts Of Potash
On reviewing what has been said respecting potash, we find that the chief actions and uses of its different salts may thus be briefly represented: Potassa Caustica - caustic. Liquor Potassae - antacid...
-Action And Uses Of The Different Salts Of Potash. Part 2
j. Sodae Chloratae Liquor. - Solution of Chlorinated Soda. Source. - Made by passing a stream of Chlorine gas through a solution of Carbonate of Soda. Characters. - A colourless liquid, with an ...
-Action And Uses Of The Different Salts Of Potash. Part 3
On the kidneys soda acts less powerfully as a diuretic than potash, increasing the water and the solid constituents, and diminishing or neutralising the acidity of the urine. The bicarbonate is the mo...
-Action And Uses Of The Different Salts Of Potash. Part 4
From Liquor Ammonia Fortior are made : . Ammoniae Phosphas. - Phospbate of Ammonia. (NH4),HPO4. Source. - Made by adding Strong Solution of Ammonia to Diluted Phosphoric Acid, evaporat...
-Lithium. L. 7
Only two salts of this metal are officinal: Lithiae Carbonas. - Carbonate of Lithia. L2CO3. Characters. - A white powder, or minute crystalline grains; alkaline. Solubility, 1 in 100 of water. ...
-Calcium. Ca. 40. Lime
Creta or chalk is naturally discussed along with calcium or lime, of which it is the carbonate. The various preparations of lime may be represented as follows, according to their source. 1. Cret...
-Magnesium. Mg. 24
The following are the officinal salts and preparations of magnesium, arranged according to their source: Magnesiae Sulphas. - Sulphate of Magnesia. Epsom Salt. MgSO4.7H1O. Source. - Native. ...
-Barium. Ba. 137
Barium is chiefly used in testing. Chloride of Barium, BaCl22H1O. Characters. - Colourless translucent tables. Dose. - 1/2 to 2 gr. Solution of Chloride of Barium, 1 in 10. Action And Uses...
-Group II - The Metals - Aluminium. Al. 27.5
Only one salt of this metal is used in medicine. Alumen. - Alum. NH4A1(SO4)2.12H1O. A sulphate of ammonia and alumina, crystallised from solution in water. Characters. - Colourless transparent o...
-Plumbum. Pb. 207. Lead
Lead is one of the most powerful and useful of metallic drugs. 1. Plumbi Oxidum Plumbi Oxidum. Oxide of Lead. Litharge. PbO. Characters. - Heavy scales of a pale brick-red colour. Soluble in ...
-Argentum. 108. Silver
Two salts of this metal are officinal, the nitrate and the oxide. Argentum Purificatum. - Refined Silver. Pure Metallic Silver. Impurities. - Lead and copper. From Argentum is made: Argent...
-Cuprum. 63.5. Copper
The sulphate is the only salt of copper employed medicinally, although other compounds, as well as the metal itself, are introduced into the Pharmacopoeia as tests. 1. Cupri Sulphas Cupri Sulpha...
-Zincum. Zinc. 65
Zincun Granulatum. - Made by pouring fused zinc into cold water. From Zincum Granulatum are made: a. Zinci Chloridum. - Chloride of Zinc. ZnCl2. Source. - Made by dissolving Zinc in Diluted Hydr...
-Cadmium. Cadmium. Cd. 112
Cadmii Iodidiim. - Iodide of Cadmium. CdI2. Source. - Made by direct combination of Iodine and Cadmium in the presence of Water. Characters. - Flat white micaceous crystals, of a pearly lustre. ...
-Cerium. Ce. 92
Only one salt of this metal is officinal. Cerii Oxalas. - Oxalate of Cerium. CeC2O43H1O. Source. - Made by precipitating a solution of Oxalate of Ammonia with a soluble salt of Cerium. Charac...
-Ferrum. Iron. Fe = 56
Wrought-iron in the form of wire or nails free from oxide. Iron wire No. 35. Preparations. 1. Mistura Ferri Aromatica Mistura Ferri Aromatica. Iron Wire, 2, Pale Cinchona Bark, 4; Calumba, 2;...
-Ferrum. Iron. Fe = 56. Continued
Dose. - 5 to 10 gr. C. Tinctura Ferri Acetatis. - Tincture of Acetate of Iron. Source. - Made by adding Acetate of Potash and Rectified Spirit to the Solution of the Persulphate, and filtering. ...
-Ferrum. Iron. Fe = 56. Continued. Continued
Iron enters the circulation along the whole length of the alimentary canal as the chloride and alkaline albuminate, and quickly unites with the corpuscles, as it cannot be found in the plasma. It comb...
-Manganesium. Mn. Manganese
The only salt of this metal in the Pharmacopoeia is the black oxide; but permanganate of potash, which is derived from it, is best discussed under this head. Manganesii Oxidum Nigrum. - Black Oxide...
-Hydrargyrum. Hg. 200. Mercury
This metal is of the first therapeutical importance, and a large number of salts and other preparations are made from it. Hydrargyrum. - Mercury. Hg. Characters. - A fluid metal, brilliantly lustro...
-Hydrargyrum. Hg. 200. Mercury. Part 2
The various methods of administering mercury locally must here be noticed. (1) In the form of the ointment, metallic mercury may be applied by inunction, i.e. rubbed into a soft part of the skin. T...
-Hydrargyrum. Hg. 200. Mercury. Part 3
No direct effect on the blood can be attributed to mercury; but impairment of nutrition generally, including digestion, attends its excessive use, and induces impoverishment, both of the plasma and th...
-Hydrargyrum. Hg. 200. Mercury. Part 3. Continued
1. Metallic Mercury and preparations containing it. 2. The Perchloride of Mercury and its preparations. 3. The Subchloride of Mercury and its preparations. 4. The Oxides, Iodides, the Ammonia...
-Group III. The Metalloids - Arsenicum. Arsenic. As. 75
Acidum Arseniosum - Arsenious Acid. White Arsenic. As2O3. Source. - An anhydrous acid, obtained by roasting Arsenical Ores, and purified by sublimation. Characters. - A heavy white powder, or st...
-Phosphorus. P. 31
A non-metallic element obtained from bones. Source. - Prepared from Phosphoric Acid or Superphosphate of Lime (obtained by acting on bone-ash by oil of vitriol), by distillation with Charcoal. C...
-Antimonium. Sb. 122. Antimony
The metal itself (Stibium) is not officinal, all the preparations being derived from black antimony, Antimonium Nigrum, as follows: Antimonium Nigrum. - Black Antimony. Native Sulphide of Antimon...
-Bismuthum. Bismuth. Bi. 210
A crystalline metal; as met with in commerce it is generally impure. From Bismuthum is made: Bismuthum Purificatum. - Purified Bismuth. Source. - Made by heating Bismuth with Nitrate of Potas...
-Chlorum. Chlorine. CL. 35.5
Although not contained in the Pharmacopoeia as the pure gas under its own name, chlorine is furnished by several important preparations, as follows: a. Liquor Chlori. - Solution of Chlorine. Chlorine ...
-Iodum. Iodine. I. 127
Under this head will be discussed both Iodine and Iodide of Potassium, the form in which the element is generally administered internally. Reference will also be made to the other officinal iodides. ...
-Iodum. - Iodine. I
Source. - A non-metallic element, obtained principally from Kelp, the ashes of sea-weed. Characters. - Laminar crystals of a dark colour and lustre, and peculiar odour. Solubility, 1 in 7,000 of wa...
-Iodum. - Iodine. I. Continued
(3) In subacute and chronic inflammations of various kinds, such as exudations or effusions in connection with the joints and serous cavities, and some forms of pulmonary consolidation, iodide of pota...
-Bromum. Br. 80. Bromine
A liquid non-metallic element. Source. - Obtained from Bitter, and from some Saline Springs. Characters. - A dark brownish-red very volatile liquid, with a strong disagreeable odour; solubility,...
-Acidum Hydrobrominum Dilutum. - Diluted Hydrobromic Acid (U.S.P.). (Not Officinal.)
A liquid composed of 10 per cent. of absolute Hydrobromic Acid, HBr, and 90 per cent. of Water. Source. - By decomposing Bromide of Potassium by Sulphuric Acid, and distilling. 2KBr + H1SO4=2HBr + ...
-Sulphur Sulphur. S. 32
An elementary body found native as virgin sulphur, also as sulphides of metals. Sulphur Sublimation. - Sublimed Sulphur. Source. - Prepared from crude or rough sulphur by sublimation. Charact...
-Carbo. Carbon. 0. 12
Two kinds of carbon are officinal, namely, animal charcoal and wood charcoal. 1. Carbo Animalis Carbo Animalis. Animal Charcoal. Bone Black. Source. - Made by exposing bones to a red heat wit...
-Group IV. The Acids
The officinal acids may be classified as follows: 1. Inorganic Acids Inorganic Acids. Acidum Sulphuricum, A. Nitricum, A. Hydrochloricum, A. Nitrohydrochloricum Dilutum, A. Phosphoricum Dilutum,...
-Acidum Sulphuricum, Nitricum, Hydrochloricum, Nitrohydrochloricum Dilutum, Phosphoricum Dilutum, Aceticum, Citricum, And Tartaricum
These substances all possess distinctly acid properties, that is, they neutralise alkalies, and turn blue litmus red. Acidum Sulphuricum. - Sulphuric Acid. H1SO4 98 per cent., = 79 per cent. SO3, i...
-Actions And Uses. 1. Immediate Local Actions And VI
Externally. - Acids are irritants, and some of them very powerful corrosives. The strong acids are used as caustics; nitric acid to destroy chancres; acetic acid, warts; sulphuric acid, some forms of ...
-Acidum Boricum. - Boric Acid. Boracic Acid. Bo3h3. (Not Officinal, Except As A Test.)
Source. - Sodae Biboras, by the action of sulphuric acid. Characters. - In white glittering plates, odourless, with a slightly bitter taste. A weak acid. Solubility, 1 in 26 of cold water, 1 in 3 o...
-Sodae Hvposulphis. - Hyposulphite Of Soda. Na2h1s2o4. 4h1o
Source. - Made by passing Sulphurous Acid gas into a solution of Carbonate of Soda, with Sulphur. 2Na2CO3 + S2 + 2SO2 + 2H1O = 2(Na2H1S2O4) + 2CO2. Characters. - Large colourless transparent crysta...
-Acidum Nitrosum. - Nitrous Acid. Hno2. (Not Officinal.)
This acid is not itself used in medicine, but the nitrites are active and valuable drugs. Those in use are nitrite of sodium and nitrite of amyl, as well as sweet spirit of nitre and nitroglycerine. T...
-Scdii Nitris. - Nitrite Of Sodium. Nano2. (Not Officinal.)
Source. - Made by heating nitrate of soda. 2NaN03= 2Na NO2 + O2. Characters. - A white granular powder, deliquescent, with a cool saline taste, very soluble in water. Impurities. - The nitrate, ...
-Group V - Water - Aqua. Water
Natural water, the purest that can be obtained, cleared, if necessary, by filtration, and free from odour, taste, and visible impurity. From Aqua is made: Aqua Destillata. - H1O. Pure water, obt...
-Group VI - The Carbohydrates And Other Carbon - Compounds - Alcohol. Alcohol. C2H6O
Besides the following preparations, which are commonly associated with alcohol, all the Tincturae, Spiritus, and Essentiae, several of the Liquores, Linimenta, and Misturae, and a few other compounds ...
-Alcohol. C2H6O. Part 2
(3) The action of alcohol on the gastric wall produces extensive effects of a reflex kind. The heart is stimulated by moderate doses, producing a pleasurable rise of pressure and sense of power. The v...
-Alcohol. C2H6O. Part 3
If the dose of alcohol be larger, these phenomena of stimulation are more pronounced, but very soon give place to depression, which spreads, like the excitement, from the highest to the lowest centres...
-Chloroformum. Chloroform. Chc13
Terchloride of Formyl. Source. - Made by (1 and 2) distilling Rectified Spirit with Chlorinated Lime and Slaked Lime (oxydising and chlorinating the alcohol); washing with Sulphuric Acid; and redis...
-Chloroformum. Chloroform. Chc13. Part 2
As the anaesthesia deepens, the reflex and automatic excitability of the cord and medulla is also diminished, and the phenomena that ensue affect all the parts supplied by these centres. The muscular ...
-Chloroformum. Chloroform. Chc13. Part 3
b. Preparation of the patient. - Insensibility is more rapid when the stomach is empty. No solid food should therefore be given for at least six hours before the operation, which should, if possible, ...
-Ether. Ether. C4h10o
A volatile liquid prepared from Alcohol, and containing at least 92 per cent. pure ether. C4H10O. Source. - Made by (1 and 2) distilling Rectified Spirit with Sulphuric Acid, purifying with Slaked ...
-Nitrous Oxide. N2o. (Not Officinal)
Nitrous Oxide Gas, Protoxide of Nitrogen, Laughing Gas. Source. - Made by heating Nitrate of Ammonia. NH4NO3 = N2O + 2H1O. Characters. - A colourless inodorous gas. It is provided for use ...
-Action And Uses. 1. Action On The Blood And Its Uses
Nitrous oxide gas, administered from an inhaler, rapidly enters the circulation; is absorbed by the plasma; converts the arterial into venous blood, in the course of about sixty seconds; and thus prod...
-Dichloride Of Ethidene. (Not Officinal.)
Source. - Obtained in the manufacture of chloral. Characters. - A colourless volatile liquid, with the odour and taste of chloroform. Specific gravity, l.20. Readily soluble in ether, chloroform, a...
-Etheyl Bromidum. Bromide Of Ethyl. Hydrobromic Ether. C2h5br. (Not Officinal.)
Source. - Made by adding Bromine to a mixture of Phosphorus and Absolute Alcohol, and distilling. 5C2H6O + PBr5 (bromide of phosphorus) = 5C2H5Br + H3PO4 + H1O. Characters. - A colourless liquid wi...
-Bichloride Of Methylene. Chloride Of Mono-Chlor-Methyl. Ch1c12(Ch1c1.C1)
(Not Officinal.) Source. - Obtained from Chloroform by the action of nascent Hydrogen, one atom of which replaces one atom of chlorine in the Chloride of Dichlor-methyl (chloroform), CHC12.C1. C...
-Ethylate Of Sodium, Solution Of
(Not Officinal.) Source. - Made by dissolving metallic Sodium in Absolute Alcohol. Characters. - A brownish syrupy liquid. Action And Uses Sodium ethylate is a powerful caustic, used to de...
-Spiritus Etheris Nitrosi Spirit Of Nitrous Ether
Sweet Spirit of Nitre. A spiritous solution, containing nitrous ether, ethyl nitrite, (C2H5NO2. Source. - Made by distilling a mixture of Rectified Spirit, Nitric Acid, Sulphuric Acid, and Copper...
-Ether, Aceticus. Acetic Ether. C2h5.C2H3O2
Source. - Made by (1) distilling Rectified Spirit with Acetate of Soda and Sulphuric Acid; and (2) separating the ethereal liquid by means of Chloride of Calcium. (1) NaC2H3O2 + H1SO4 + C2H6O = C2H5,C...
-Chloral Hydras. Hydrate Of Chloral. C2hc13o.H1O
Source. - Made from Chloral by the addition of Water.. Chloral (C2HC13O) is itself made by the action of dried Chlorine upon anhydrous Alcohol, and purifying. C2H6O + Cl8 = C2HC13O + 5HC1. Characte...
-Action And Uses. 1. Immediate Local Action' And Uses
Externally. - Applied in weak solution (5 gr. to the ounce of water), chloral hydrate is antiseptic; concentrated solutions are irritant, causing vesication. The drug is but little used externally. ...
-Butyl-Chloral Hydras. Hydrate Of Butyl-Chloral. Crotox-Chloral. C4h3c13o
(Not Officinal) Source. - Made by passing Chlorine gas through Acetic Aldehyde, which is converted first into Crotonic Aldehyde, and then into Croton Chloral. Characters. - Small brilliant tabul...
-Amyl Nitris. Nitrite Of Amyl. C5h11.NO2
Source. - Produced by heating Nitric Acid with Amylic Alcohol, distilling, and purifying the product. Characters. - An ethereal liquid, of a yellowish colour, and peculiar pine-apple odour. Sp. gr....
-Nitro-Glycebinum. Nitroglycerine. C3h5n3o9. (Not Officinal.)
Source. - Made by dropping Glycerine into a mixture of Sulphuric and Nitric Acids, washing, and evaporating to a proper density. Characters. - An oily liquid, colourless, odourless, with a sweet pu...
-Ethyl Iodidum. Iodide Of Ethyl. Hydrio-Dic Ether. C2h5i. (Not Officinal)
Source. - Made by adding iodine to a mixture of Alcohol and Phosphorus, distilling, and purifying. 5C2H5HO + PI5 (iodide of phosphorus) = 5C2H5I + H3PO4 + H1O. Characters. - A colourless volatile l...
-Acidum Hydrocyanicum Dilutum
Diluted Hydrocyanic Acid. Prussic Acid. Hydrocyanic acid, HCN, dissolved in water, and constituting 2 per cent. by weight of the solution. Source. - Made by distilling solutions of Ferrocyanide o...
-Trimethylamine Propylamin. (Not Officinal)
An ammonia compound, in which the thre atoms of hydrogen are replaced by methyl, NC3H9= N(CH3)3, dissolved in water. Source. - Obtained from herring brine by distillation. It is also contained in c...
-Acidum Carbolicum. Carbolic Acid, Phenic Acid, Phenol, Phenylic Alcohol. C6h5ho
An acid obtained from coal-tar oil by fractional distillation and purification. Characters. - Colourless, acicular crystals; hygroscopic; with a tarry odour and burning taste. Becomes and remains f...
-Resorcin. (Not Officinal.)
A derivative of carbolic acid by various processes. Characters. - White tabular lustrous crystals, with a weak odour like carbolic acid, and a sweetish, somewhat pungeut taste. Solubility, 1 in 2 o...
-Chinolin. C9h7n. (Not Officinal.)
A derivate of Cinchona Bark, whence its name. Now made synthetically, or by the action of glycerin on nitro-benzol and aniline, in the presence of a dehydrating agent. Characters. - A colourless, o...
-Kairin. (Not Officinal.)
A pale-buff powder, with a disagreeable bitter and somewhat aromatic taste. It is made from phenol. Dose. - 5 gr. every hour; or 15 to 20 gr. in single doses. Action And Uses Kairin is antise...
-Furchsine - Magenta Dye. (Not Officinal.)
An aniline product occurring in brilliant beetle-coloured needles, forming an intense deep-red solution wich water. Dose. - 1/2 to 4 gr. Action And Uses Fuchsine passes through the blood and ...
-Crcasotum-Creasote
A product of the distillation of Wood Tar. Characters. - A liquid, colourless or with a yellowish tinge, a strong empyreumatic odour, and burning taste. Soluble, sparingly in water; freely in alcoh...
-Petrolatum (U.S.P.) - Petroleum Ointment, Vaseline. (Not Officinal.)
Source. - Obtained from American petroleum by distilling off the lighter portions and purifying the residue. Characters. - A yellowish semi-solid fat-like mass, transparent, odourless, tasteless, n...
-Part II. The Organic Materia Medica Group I. The Vegetable Kingdom Ranunculace
Aconiti Folia - Aconite Leaves. - The fresh leaves and flowering tops of Aconitum Napellus. Gathered when about one-third of the flowers are expanded, from plants cultivated in Britain. Characters....
-Magnoliace
Illicium Anisatum - Star Anise. - The oil distilled in China from the fruit forms part of the Oil of Aniseed of the Pharmacopoeia. See Oleum Anisi. N.O. Umbelliferoe. Actaea Racemosa. Cimicifuga. (...
-Menispermace
Calumbae Radix - Calumba Root. - The root, cut transversely and dried, of Jateorrhiza Calumba and Miersii. From the forests of eastern Africa, between Ibo and the Zambesi. Characters. - Slices, fla...
-Papaveraceae
Papaveris Capsular - Poppy Capsules. -The nearly ripe dried capsules of the White Poppy, Papaver somniferum. Cultivated in Britain. Characters. - Globular, two or three inches in diameter, crowned ...
-C17h19no3.HCl.3H1O
Source. - Made by (1) precipitating and rejecting the meconic acid and resins, by adding a solution of chloride of calcium to a concentrated cold watery infusion of opium; (2) evaporating the solution...
-C17h19no3.HCl.3H1O. Part 2
2. Action On The Blood Morphia enters the circulation less quickly than some other alkaloids, although the first traces of the drug are rapidly discovered in the blood. Thus its full action is comp...
-C17h19no3.HCl.3H1O. Part 3
Whilst the respiratory movements of the chest are impaired through the centre, so that they become feeble and tend to cease, the afferent nerves of breathing - that is, the branches of the vagus arisi...
-C17h19no3.HCl.3H1O. Part 4
With respect to the liver and metabolism, opium is by far the most powerful drug known in reducing or removing sugar from the urine in diabetes, and therewith ameliorating the condition of the patient...
-C17h19no3.HCl.3H1O. Part 5
2. Superficial pain may be met by local applications such as the Plaster, Liniment, or fomentations made with laudanum or other fluid preparation; but, as we saw, the value of the drug itself in all t...
-Apomorphia. C17h17no2. Apomorphia. (Not Officinal.)
Source. - Made by heating morphia in a closed tube, with concentrated hydrochloric acid, whereupon the alkaloid loses one molecule of water - Ci7Hl9NO3 = C17Hl7NO2 + H1O. Characters. - A white powd...
-Crucifer
Sinapis - Mustard. - The seeds of Sinapis Nigra, and Sinapis Alba; also the seeds reduced to powder, mixed. Characters of the Powder. - Greenish-yellow, of an acrid bitterish oily pungent taste, sc...
-Polygalace
Senegae Radix - Senega Root. - The dried root of Polygala Senega. From North America. Characters. - A knobby root-stock, with a branched taproot, of about the thickness of a quill, twisted and keel...
-Sapindace
Guarana. (Not Officinal.) - The seeds of Paul-linia sorbilis, reduced to powder after roasting, and made into a stiff paste with water. From Brazil. Characters. - Cylindrical rolls of dried paste. ...
-Erythroxylace
Coca. (Not Officinal) - The leaves of Erythroxy-lon Coca. From South America. Characters. - Leaves two inches long, petiolate, oval, entire, pointed at the blunt apex, with a slight odour of tea, a...
-Linaceae
Lini Semina - Linseed. - The seeds of Linum usitatissimum, Flax. Cultivated in Britain. Characters. - Small, oval, pointed, flat, with acute edges, smooth shining brown externally, yellowish-white ...
-Malvaceae
Gossypium - Cotton Wool. - The hairs of the seed of several species of Gossypium, carded. Preparations. Pyroxylin. Gun Cotton. - Made by immersing the wool in a mixture of sulphuric and nitric a...
-Aurantiace
Aurantii Cortex - Bitter-Orange Peel. - The dried outer part of the rind of the bitter orange, Citrus Bigaradia. From the ripe fruit imported from the south of Europe. Characters. - Thin, of a dark...
-Camelliaceae
Tea. (Not Officinal.) - The dried leaves of Thea sinensis, Composition. - Tea contains an alkaloid, thein, C8H10N4O2, identical with caffein; a volatile oil, most abundant in green tea, and tannin....
-Guttifer
Cambogia - Gamboge. - A gum-resin obtained from Garcinia Morella. Imported from Siam. Characters. - Cylindrical pieces, breaking easily with a smooth conchoidal glistening fracture; colour tawny, c...
-Canellace
Canellae Albae Cortex - Canella Alba Bark. - The bark of Canella alba. From the West Indies. Characters. - In quills or broken pieces, hard, of a yellowish-white or pale-orange colour, somewhat lig...
-Vitace
Uvae - Raisins. - The ripe fruit of Vitis vinifera, the Grape Vine, dried in the sun or with artificial heat. Imported from Spain. Composition. - Raisins contain grape sugar, acid tartrate of potas...
-Zygophyllace
Guaiaci Lignum - Guaiacum: Wood. - The wood of Guaiacum officinale. Imported from St. Domingo and Jamaica, and reduced by the turning lathe to the form of a coarse powder or small chips. Guaiaci Li...
-Rutace
Buchu Folia - Buchu Leaves. - The dried leaves of: 1. Barosma betulina, Bartling. 2. Barosma crenulata, Hooker. 3. Barosma serratifolia, Willd. Imported from the Cape of Good Hope. Characters. - Sm...
-Pilocarpi Folia (Not Officinal). -The Leaflets
Pilocarpus. .217 of Pilocarpus pennatifolius. Jaborandi. Imported from Brazil . Characters. - Leaves dull green, large, pinnate, with 3 to 5 pairs of leaflets and a terminal one. Leaflets coriaceou...
-Simarubace
Quassiae Lignum - Quassia Wood. - The wood of Picraena excelsa. From Jamaica. Characters. - Billets varying in size, seldom thicker than the thigh. Wood dense, tough, yellowish white, intensely an...
-CelastraceŠ. Enonymus - Wahoo. (Not Officinal.)
The bark of Euonymus atropurpureus. Characters. - Quilled or curved pieces; ash-grey with blackish patches without; whitish within; nearly inodorous; sweetish, somewhat bitter, and acrid. Compos...
-Anacardiaceae
Mastiche - Mastich. - A resinous exudation ob-tained by incision from the stem of Pistacia lentiscus. Produced in the island of Scio. Characters. - Small irregular yellowish tears, brittle, he-comi...
-Amyridaceae
Myrrha. - Myrrh. - A gum-resinous exudation from the stem of Balsamodendron myrrha. Collected in Arabia Felix and Abyssinia. Characters. - In irregular-shaped tears or masses varying much in size, ...
-Pterocarpi Lignum - Red Sandal Wood. -The Wood Of Pterocarpus Santalinus. From Ceylon
Characters. - Dense heavy billets, outwardly dark brown, internally variegated with dark and tighter red rings, if cut transversely. Powder blood-red, of a faint peculiar odour, and an obscurely astri...
-Pliysostigmatis Faba - Calabar Bean. - The Seed Of Physostigma Venenosum. Western Africa
Characters. - About the size of a very large horse-bean, with a very firm, hard, brittle shining integument of a brownish-red, pale chocolate, or ash-grey colour. Irregularly kidney-shaped, with two f...
-Araroba - Goa Powder
A concretion from clefts in the stem of Andira Araroba (Angeliun Amar-gosa) imported from Brazil chiefly into India. (Not officinal) Characters. - A powder or in small pieces of a light yellow colo...
-Senna Indica - Tinnivelly Senna
The leaflets of Cassia elongata. From plants cultivated in Southern India. Characters. - About two inches long, lanceolate, acute, unequally oblique at the base, flexible, entire, green, without an...
-Action In The Blood, Specific And Remote Local Action
Cathartic acid and chrysophanic acid enter the blood, pass through the tissues, and are excreted by the kidneys and mammary gland; the cathartic acid purging infants at the breast, the chrysophanic ac...
-Cassiae Pulpa - Cassia Pulp
The pulp obtained from the pods of the Purging Cassia, Cassia Fistula. Imported from the East Indies, or recently extracted from pods imported from the East or West Indies. Characters of the pods. ...
-Tamarindus - Tamarind
The preserved pulp of the fruit of Tamarindus indica. Imported from the West Indies. Characters and Test. - A brown sweetish subacid pulp preserved in sugar, containing strong fibres and brown shin...
-Copaiba - Copaiva
The oleo-resin obtained from incisions made in the trunk of Copaifera multi-juga. and other species of Copaifera. Chiefly from the valley of the Amazon. Characters and Tests. - About the consistenc...
-Acaciae Gummi - Gum Acacia
A gummy exudation from the stems of one or more undetermined species of Acacia. Characters and Tests. - In spheroidal tears, nearly colourless, and opaque from numerous minute cracks; or in fragmen...
-Rosace
Rosae Gallicae Petala - Red Rose Petals. - The fresh and dried unexpanded petals of Rosa gallica. From plants cultivated in Britain. Characters. - Colour fine purplish-red, retained after drying; t...
-Amygdala Dulcis - Sweet Almond
The seed of the sweet almond tree, Amygdalus communis, var. dulcis. Cultivated about Malaga. Characters. - Above an inch in length, Lanceolate, acute, with a clear cinnamon-brown seed-coat, and a b...
-Prunum - Prune
The dried drupe of the Plum, Prunus domestica. From southern Europe. Composition. - The prune contains sugar, malic acid, and a purgative principle. Prune is contained in Confectio Sennae, 1 in ...
-Cusso - Kousso
The flowers and tops of Brayera anthelmintica. Collected in Abyssinia. Characters. - Flowers small, reddish brown, on hairy stalks, outer limb of calyx five-parted, the segments oblong or oblong-la...
-Myrtace. Caryophyllum - Cloves
The dried unex-panded flower buds of Caryophyllus aromaticus. Cultivated in Penang, Bencoolen, and Amboyna. Characters. - About six lines long, dark reddish-brown, plump and heavy, consisting of a ...
-Pimenta - Pimento
The dried unripe berries of the Allspice tree, Eugenia Pimenta. West Indies. Characters. - Of the size of a small pea, brown, rough, crowned with the teeth of the calyx, yellowish within, and conta...
-Oleum Cajuputi - Oil Of Cajuput
The Oil distilled from the leaves of Melaleuca minor. Imported from Batavia and Singapore. Characters. - Very mobile, transparent, of a fine pale bluish-green colour. It has a strong agreeable odou...
-Dipterocarpine
Chaulmoogra Oil. - The oil expressed from the seeds of Gynocardia odorata. From India. Characters. - A pale-brownish unctuous solid, with a disagreeable smell and taste. Composition. - Chaulmoog...
-Umbellifer
Conii Folia - Hemlock Leaves. - The fresh leaves and young branches of Spotted Hemlock, Conium maculatum; also the leaves separated from the branches and carefully dried; gathered from wild British pl...
-Galbanum - Galbanum
A gum-resin, derived from an unascertained umbelliferous plant (said to be Ferula galbaniflua). Imported from India and the Levant. Characters. - In irregular tears, about the size of a pea, usuall...
-Coriandri Fructus - Coriander Fruit
The dried ripe fruit of Coriandrum sativum. Cultivated in Britain. Characters. - Globular, nearly as large as white pepper, beaked, finely ribbed, yellowish-brown; has an agreeable aromatic odour a...
-. Action And Uses
Caraway acts like other aromatic substances, as described under Caryophyllum. It is extensively used as a flavouring and carminative agent. Anethi Fructus - Dill Fruit. - The fruit of Anethum grave...
-Caprifoliace
Sambuci Flores - Elder Flowers. - The fresh flowers of Sambucus nigra. From indigenous plants. Characters. - Flowers small, white, fragrant, in cymes. Composition. - Elder flowers contain a trace o...
-Cinchoxace
Cinchonae Flavae Cortex - Yellow-Cinchona Bark. - The bark of Cinchona Calisaya. Collected in Bolivia and southern Peru. Characters. - In flat pieces, uncoated or deprived of the periderm, rarely i...
-Cinchoxace. Part 2
Dose of any of the barks. - 15 gr. as a tonic; 1 to 2 dr. in ague. Preparations. a. Of the Yellow Bark: 1. Decoctum Cinchonse Flavae Decoctum Cinchonse Flavae. 1 in 16. Lose, 1 to 2 fl.oz....
-Cinchoxace. Part 3
(1) Quinia lowers the body temperature very moderately in the healthy subject; very markedly in the pyrexia of many acute specific fevers. It appears to be difficult to lower the normal temperature by...
-Action And Uses Of The Cinchona Barks
The cinchona barks contain but a small percentage of alkaloids, and are far too bulky for use as antiperiodics and antipyretics if quinia can be obtained. They are therefore given only as bitter stoma...
-Ipecacuanha - Ipecacuanha. - The Dried Root Of Cephaelis Ipecacuanha. Imported From Brazil
Characters. - In pieces three or four inches long, about the size of a small quill, contorted and irregularly annulated. Colour, brown of various shades. It consists of two parts, the cortical or acti...
-Catechu Pallidum - Pale Catechu
An extract of the leaves and young shoots of Uncaria Gambir. Prepared at Singapore and in other places in the Eastern Archipelago. Characters. - In cubes, about an inch in diameter, externally brow...
-Valerianace
Valerianae Radix - Valerian Root. - The dried root of Valeriana officinalis. From plants indigenous to and also cultivated in Britain. Collected in autumn, wild plants being preferred. Characters. ...
-Pyrethri Radix-Pellitory Root
The root of Anacyclus Pyrethrum. imported from the Levant. Characters.-In pieces about the length and thickness of the little finger, covered with a thick brown bark, studded with S-8 black shining...
-Pyrethrum Roseum (Not Officinal)
The powder of the flower-heads used as insect powder. Santonica-Santonica. - The unexpanded flower-heads of an undetermined species of Artemisia. Imported from Russia. Characters.-Flower-heads r...
-Anthemidis Flores-Chamomile Flowers
The dried single and double flower-heads of the common chamomile, Anthemis nobilis. Wild and cultivated. Characters.-The single variety consists of both yellow tubular and white strap-shaped floret...
-Taraxaci Radix- Dandelion__root
The fresh and dried roots of Taraxacum Dens Leonis. Gathered between September and February, from meadows and pastures in Britain. Characters and tests.-Tap-shaped roots, smooth and dark-brown exte...
-Lactuca-Lettuce
The flowering herb of Lac-tuca virosa. a native of Britain. Composition.-Extract of lettuce contains, besides many other ingredients, a crystalline bitter principle, lactucin, and lactucic acid, of...
-Arnicae Radix-Arnica Root
The dried rhizome and rootlets of Arnica montana. Collected in the mountainous parts of middle and southern Europe. Substances resembling Arnica: Valerian, known by smell; Serpentary, with very man...
-Lobeliaceae
Lobelia-Lobelia.-The dried flowering herb of Lobelia inflata. Imported from North America. Characters.-Stem angular; leaves alternate, ovate, toothed, somewhat hairy beneath; capsule ovoid, inflate...
-Ericaceae
Uvae Ursi Folia-Bearberry Leaves.-The dried leaves of Arctostaphylos Uva Ursi. From indigenous plants. Characters.-Obovate, entire, coriaceous shining leaves, about three-fourths of an inch in leng...
-Sapotaceae
Guttapercha-Guttapercha.-The concrete juice of Isonandra gutta. A native of Borneo, Sumatra, and other Eastern islands. Characters and Tests.-In tough flexible pieces, of a light brown or chocolate...
-Uses
Guttapercha is employed for making surgical instruments and apparatus. The solution is used in Charta Sinapis. ...
-Styracaceae
Benzoinum-Benzoin.-A balsamic resin obtained from Styrax Benzoin. It is procured by making incisions into the bark of the tree, and allowing the liquid that exudes to concrete by exposure to the air. ...
-Oleaceae
Olivae Oleum-Olive Oil.-The oil expressed in the south of Europe from the ripe fruit of Olea europaea. Characters.-Pale yellow, with scarcely any odour, and a bland oleaginous taste; congeals parti...
-Olxcerimim.-Glycerine, C3h8o3
A sweet principle obtained from fats and fixed oils, and containing 5 per cent. of water. Characters.-A clear colourless fluid, oily to the touch, without odour, of a sweet taste, a free solvent of...
-Oleic Acid, Hc18h33o2. (Not Officinal)
One of the constituent acids of oil obtained by the action of superheated steam. Characters.-A yellowish oily liquid, odourless, tasteless, neutral in reaction. Sp. gr., .800 to .810. Insoluble in ...
-Loganiaceae. Nux Vomica-Nux Vomica
The seeds of Strychnos Nux vomica, Imported from the East Indies. Characters.-Nearly circular and flat, about an inch in diameter, umbilicated and slightly convex on one side, externally of an ash-...
-Spigeliae Radix-Carolina Pink. (Not Officinal.)
The rhizome and rootlets of Spigelia mari-landica. From the United States. Characters.-A thick globular brown head, with numerous fine branching rootlets. Composition.-Spigelia contains an uncry...
-Gelsemii Radix. (Not Officinal)
The fresh rhizome and rootlets of Gelsemium sempervirens, the Yellow Jasmine. From the United States. Characters.-A very light, fibrous, dirty-yellowish root, with rootlets; odour aromatic and heav...
-Apocynaceae
Quebracho Bark. (Not Officinal.)-The bark of Aspidosperma Quebracho. From Chili. Characters.-In pieces, 3/4 inch thick; interior, fibrous and cinnamon-brown, with a short fracture; exterior, reddis...
-Asclepiadaceae
Hemidesmi Radix - Hemidesmus Root. -The dried root of Hemidesmus indicus. Imported from India. Characters.-Yellowish-brown, cylindrical, tortuous, furrowed, and with annular cracks, having a fragra...
-Gentianaceae. Gentianae Radix-Gentian Root
The dried root of Gentiana lutea. Collected in the mountainous districts of central and southern Europe. Characters.-From half an inch to one inch in thickness, several inches in length, often twis...
-Chirata-Chiretta
The entire plant, Ophelia chirata. Collected in Northern India. Characters.-Stems about three feet long, of the thickness of a goose-quill, round, smooth, pale brown, branched; branches opposite; f...
-Convolvulaceae
Scammoniae Radix-Scammony Root.-The dried root of Convolvulus scammonia. From Syria and Asia Minor. Characters.-Tap-shaped roots, sometimes three inches in diameter at the top, brown without, white...
-Jalapa-Jalap
The dried tubercles of Exo-gonium purga. Imported from Mexico. Characters.-Varying from the size of a nut to that of an orange, ovoid, the larger tubercles frequently incised, covered with a thin b...
-Jalapae Resina
Resin of Jalap. Source.-Made by precipitating a tincture of jalap in water. Characters.-Dark-brown opaque fragments, translucent at the edges; brittle, with a resinous fracture; with a sweetish ...
-Solanaceae. Dulcamara-Dulcamara
The dried young branches of Solanum dulcamara. Bittersweet. From indigenous plants which have shed their leaves. Characters.-Light, hollow, cylindrical, about the thickness of a goose-quill, bitter...
-Capsici Frnctus-Oapstcttm Fruit
The dried ripe fruit of Capsicum fastigiatum. Imported from Zanzibar, and distinguished in commerce as Guinea Pepper and Pod Pepper. Characters.-Pod membranous, from five to eight lines long, two l...
-Atropaceae
Belladonnae Folia-Belt,a donna Leaves.-The fresh leaves, with the branches to which they are attached, of Deadly Nightshade, Atropa Belladonna ; also the leaves separated from the branches and careful...
-Atropia,-Atropia. Atropin, C17h13no3
An alkaloid obtained from Belladonna Root. Source.-Made by the following process: (1) Exhausting the root with Spirit; (2) precipitating the colouring matters with Lime, and filtering, and neutrali...
-Atropia,-Atropia. Atropin, C17h13no3. Part 2
The endings of the third nerve are paralysed in the sphincter of the pupil and in the ciliary muscle, giving rise to the dilatation of the pupil and the disturbance of accommodation. The effect on the...
-Atropia,-Atropia. Atropin, C17h13no3. Part 3
Belladonna is used in diseases of the respiratory organs, both for the prevention and for the relief of spasm of the bronchi (asthma), spasmodic cough of any kind, and especially pertussis. It is diff...
-Homatropin (Not Officinal)
A derivative of Atropia. Its action is similar to that of atropia, though weaker. It is used only in ophthalmic practice, its advantage being, that whilst it acts as promptly though not so energeti...
-Scrophulariaceae
Digitalis Folia-Digitalis Leaves.-The dried leaves of Digitalis purpurea. Purple Foxglove. Collected from wild indigenous plants, when about two-thirds of the flowers are expanded. Characters.-Ovat...
-Labiatae
Rosmarini Oleum-Oil, of Rosemary.-The oil distilled from the flowering tops of Rosmarinus officinalis. Characters.-Colourless, with the odour of rosemary, and a warm aromatic taste. Composition....
-Thymol. - C10h13ho (Not Officinal)
A stearoptene contained in Oil of Thyme. Characters.-Large colourless, transparent crystals with an aromatic thyme-like odour, and an aromatic peppery taste. Solubility, 1 in 800 of water; freely i...
-Hamamelaceae
Hamamelis. (Not Officinal.)-The leaves of Hamamelis virginica, the Witch Hazel, collected in autumn. From the United States. Characters.-Short petiolate, 4 inches long, obovate or oval, oblique at ...
-Polygonaceae
Rhei Radix-Rhubarb Root.-The dried root deprived of the bark, from one or more undetermined species of Rheum. From China. Chinese Tartary, and Thibet. Imported from Shanghai and Canton. Characters....
-Myristicaceae
Myristica-Nutmeg.-The kernel of the seed of Myristica officinalis. Cultivated extensively in the Banda Islands of the Malayan Archipelago. Characters.-Oval or nearly round, about an inch in length,...
-Lauraceae
Cinnamomi Cortex-Cinnamon Bark.-The inner bark of shoots from the truncated stocks of Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Imported from Ceylon, and distinguished in commerce as Ceylon Cinnamon. Characters.-Abou...
-Camphoia-Camphor
A concrete volatile oil, obtained from the wood of Camphora officinarum. Imported in the crude state from China and Japan, and purified by sublimation in this country. Characters and test.- White, ...
-Sassafras Radix-Sassafras Root
The dried root of Sassafras officinale. From North America. Characters.-In branched pieces, sometimes eight inches in diameter at the crown; bark externally greyish-brown, internally rusty-brown; o...
-Beberiae Sulphas (C36h40n2o6.H1SO4)
The sulphate of an alkaloid prepared from Bebeeru Bark. Source.-Made by (1) exhausting the powdered Bark with Water and Sulphuric Acid; (2) precipitating the colouring matter with Lime; (3) filteri...
-Aristolochiae
Serpentariae Radix-Serpentary Root.-The dried rhizome of Aristolochia Serpentaria. From the southern parts of North America. Characters.-A small roundish rhizome, with a tuft of numerous slender ro...
-Thymelaceae
Mezerei Cortex-Mezereon Bark.-The dried bark of Daphne Mezereum, Mezereon; or of Daphne Laureola, Spurge Laurel. British: the latter cultivated. Characters.-In strips or quilled pieces of various l...
-Euphorbiaceae
Cascarillae Cortex-Cascarilla Bark.-The bark of Croton Eluteria. From the Bahama Islands. Characters.-In quills, two or three inches in length, and from two to five lines in diameter, dull brown, b...
-Action
Crotonic acid, or its products, are occasionally absorbed, and cause disturbance of the heart and nervous centres. Oleum Ricini-Castor Oil.-The oil expressed from the seeds of Ricinus communis. Imp...
-Piperaceae. Piper Nigrum - Black Pepper
The dried unripe berries of Piper nigrum. Imported from the East Indies. Characters.-Small, roundish, wrinkled ; tegument brown -ish-black, containing a greyish-yellow globular seed. Odour aromatic...
-Cubeba-Cubebs
The dried unripe fruit of Cubeba officinalis. Cultivated in Java. Characters.-The size of black pepper, globular, wrinkled, blackish, supported on a stalk of rather more than its own length; has a ...
-Maticae Folia-Matico Leaves
The dried leaves of Artanthe elongata. Imported from Peru. Characters.-From two to eight inches long, veined and tesselated on the upper surface, downy beneath; with an aromatic, slightly astringen...
-Salicaceae
Salicis Cortex-Willow Bark. (Not Officinal.) -The bark of Salix caprea. and other species. Characters.-Quilled pieces, the epidermis dark, the structure fibrous and tough ; odour slightly aromatic;...
-Liquidambaraceae
Styrax Praeparatus-Prepared Storax.-A balsam obtained from the bark of Liquidambar orientale. Purified by means of rectified spirit and straining. Characters.-A semi-transparent brownish-yellow sem...
-Ulmaceae. Ulmi Cortex-Elm Bark
The dried inner bark of Ulmus campestris. Broad-leaved Elm. From trees indigenous to and cultivated in Great Britain. Characters.-A tough brownish-yellow bark, about half a line thick, without smel...
-Cupuliferae
Quercus Cortex-Oak Bark.-The dried bark of the small branches and young stems of Quercus pedunculata. Collected in spring, from trees growing in Great Britain. Characters.-Covered with a greyish sh...
-Acidiim Pyrogallicum - Pyrogallic Acid. Pyrogallol. C6h3(Oh)3. {Not Officinal.)
A body obtained from gallic or tannic acid by carefully heating. Characters.-Very small shining colourless crystals, becoming black on exposure; odourless, insipid; not acid to test-paper; readily ...
-Horaceae
Ficus-Fig.-The dried fruit of Ficus Carica. Imported from Smyrna. Composition.-Figs contain chiefly sugar and mucilaginous substances. Figs are contained in Confectio Sennae. Action And Uses ...
-Cannabinaceae
Cannabis Indica-Indian Hemp.-The dried flowering tops of the female plants of Cannabis sativa. For medicinal use that which is grown in India, and from which the resin has not been removed, is alone t...
-Action And Uses. 1. Immediate Local Action, And Action On The Blood
Positive knowledge on these points is wanting; but the drug certainly does not derange the stomach and intestines like opium. It is never used externally. Internally the extract forms a useful correct...
-Lupulus-Hop
The dried strobiles of the female plant of Humulus lupulus. Cultivated in England, Characters.-Strobiles of a greenish-yellow colour, with minute yellow grains (lupuline) adherent to the base of th...
-Coniferae
Terebinthinae Oleum-Oil of Turpentine. The oil distilled from the oleo-resin (turpentine), obtained from Pinus palustris, Pinus Taeda. and sometimes Pinus Pinaster. Characters.-Limpid, colourless, ...
-Resina-Resin
The residue of the distillation of the turpentines from various species of Pinus and Abies. Characters.-Translucent, yellowish, brittle, pulverisable; fracture shining; odour and taste faintly tere...
-Terebinthina Canadensis-Canada Balsam
The turpentine obtained by incision from the stem of Abies balsamea, Balm of Gilead Fir. From Canada. Characters.-A pale yellow ductile oleo-resin, of the consistence of thin honey, with a peculiar...
-Fix Burgundica - Burgundy Pitch
A resinous exudation from the stem of the Spruce Fir, Abies excelsa. Melted and strained; imported from Germany. Characters.-Hard and brittle, yet gradually taking the form of the vessel in which i...
-Fix Liquida-Tar
A bituminous liquid obtained from the wood of Pinus sylvestris and other pines by destructive distillation. Characters.-Thick, viscid, brownish-black, of a well-known peculiar aromatic odour. Water...
-Juniperi Oleum-Oil Of Juniper
The oil distilled in Britain from the unripe fruit of Juniperus communis. Characters of the fruit.-The size of a large pea, of a blackish-purple colour, covered by a glaucous bloom; marked with a t...
-Zingiberaceae
Zingiber-Ginger.-The scraped and dried rhizome of Zingiber officinale. From plants cultivated in the West Indies, India, and other countries. Characters.-Irregular lobed decorticated pieces, three ...
-Iridaceae
Crocus-Saffron.-The dried stigma, and part of the style, of Crocus sativus. Imported from Spain, France, and Italy. Characters.-Thread-like styles, each terminated by three long orange-brown stigma...
-Smilaceae
Sarsae Radix-Jamaica Sarsaparilla.-The dried root of Smilax officinalis. Native of Central America ; imported from Jamaica. Characters.-Roots not thicker than a goose-quill, generally many feet in ...
-Liliaceae
Scilla-Squill.-The sliced and dried bulb of Urginea Scilla. From the Mediterranean coasts. Characters.-Bulb pear-shaped, weighing from half a pound to ten pounds; outer scales membranous, brownish-...
-Aloe Barbadensis-Barbados Aloes
The inspissated juice of the leaf of Aloe vulgaris. Imported from Barbadoes. Characters.-In yellowish-brown or dark-brown opaque masses; breaks with a dull conchoidal fracture; has a bitter nauseou...
-Melanthaceae
Veratri Viridis Radix - Green Hellebore Root.-The dried rhizome of Veratrum viride. Collected in autumn in the United States and Canada. Characters.-Slices, fragments, or conical truncated entire p...
-Action And Uses. 1. Local Action And Uses
Externally, green hellebore and veratria are first powerfully irritant and then depressant to the nerves and vessels, causing pricking, burning sensations, and redness of the skin, followed by loss of...
-Palmaceae
Areca - Areca Nut. - The seed of Areca Catechu, the Betel Nut Tree. Imported from the East Indies. Characters.-The nuts are about the size of a nutmeg, but less wrinkled and more globular, and not ...
-Graminaceae
Farina Tritici-Wheaten Flour.-The grain of Wheat, Triticum vulgare, ground and sifted. Characters.-Familiar. Composition.-Flour consists chiefly of gluten and starch, with gum, sugar, mucilage, ...
-Amylum-Starch. C6h10o5
The Starch procured from the seeds of common wheat, Triticum vulgare. Characters and tests. -In white columnar masses. When rubbed in a Wedgwood mortar with a little cold distilled water, it is nei...
-Malt Extract-Maltine. {Not Officinal.)
A syrupy yellowish-brown fluid, with a sweet taste; made by acting on malt, or a mixture of malt and flour, by water, at a temperature not exceeding 124║ Fahr. Composition.-Malt extract consists ch...
-Ergota-Ergot
The sclerotium (compact mycelium or spawn) of Claviceps purpurea, produced within the paleae of the common Rye, Secale cereale. Characters.-Subtriangular, curved, with a longitudinal furrow on the ...
-Theriaca-Treacle (Sacchari Faex)
The un-crystallised residue of the refining of sugar. Characters. - A thick brown fermentable syrup, very sweet. Theriaca is an ingredient of a number of pills. Action And Uses Treacle is ...
-Filices. Filix Mas-Male Fern
The dried rhizome, with the bases of the footstalks and portions of the root fibres, of Aspidium Filix mas. Collected in summer. Characters.-Tufted, scaly, greenish brown; powder greenish-yellow, w...
-Lichenes
Cetraria -Iceland Moss.-The entire lichen, Cetraria islandica. Native of the north of Europe. Characters.-Foliaceous, lobed,crisp,cartilaginous, brownish-white, paler beneath; taste bitter, and muc...
-Fungi
Muscariae Nitras-(Not Officinal.)-Nitrate of Muscarin, the liquid alkaloid of Agaricus muscarius or Amanita muscaria, the Fly Agaric. Dose.-1/30 to 1/3 gr. Action And Uses The action of musca...
-Group II. The Animal Kingdom. Rodentia. Castoreum - Castor
The dried preputial follicles and their secretion, obtained from the Beaver, Castor Fiber, and separated from the somewhat shorter and smaller oil-sacs which are frequently attached to them. From the ...
-Ruminantia
Moschus-Musk.-The inspissated and dried secretion from the preputial follicles of Moschus moschiferus: native of the mountainous regions of Central Asia. Imported from China and India. Characters.-...
-Pachydermata. Adeps Praeparatus-Prepared Lard
The purified fat of the Hog, Sus scrofa. Characters and tests.-A soft white fatty substance, melting at about 100. Has no rancid odour. Dissolves entirely in ether. Impurities.-Common salt ...
-Cetacea
Cetaceum-Spermaceti.-Nearly pure cetine, obtained, mixed with oil, from the head of the Sperm Whale, Physeter macrocephalus, inhabiting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It is separated from the oil by f...
-Aves
Albumen Ovi-Egg Albumen.-The liquid white of the egg of Gallus Banckiva, var. domesticus. Composition.-White of egg contains 86 percent. of water, and 14 per cent. of solids, chiefly albumen, with ...
-Pisces
Isinglass-The swimming bladder or sound of various species of Acipenser, prepared and cut into fine shreds. Characters.-Light, coriaceous, whitish or yellowish, semi-transparent, inodorous, tastele...
-Hymenoptera
Mel-Honey.-A saccharine secretion deposited in the honeycomb, by Apis mellifica, the Hive Bee. Characters and test.-When recently separated from the honeycomb, it is a viscid translucent liquid, of...
-Hemiptera
Coccus-Cochineal.-The dried female insect, Coccus Cacti. Reared in Mexico and Teneriffe. Characters.-Ovate, plano-convex, about two lines long, wrinkled, black or greyish-white; yields, when crushe...
-Coleoptera
Cantharis - Cantharides. - Cantharis vesica-toria. The Beetle, dried ; collected chiefly in Hungary. Characters.-From eight to ten lines long, furnished with two wing-covers of a shining metallic-g...
-Annelida
Hirudo-The Leech. - 1, Sanguisuga medici-nalis, the Speckled Leech; and, 2, Sanguisuga officinalis, the Green Leech. Collected chiefly in France, Spain, Italy, and Hungary. Characters.-Body elongat...
-Synopsis Of Vegetable And Animal Products Contained In The British Pharmacopoeia
Leaves. Digitalis Stramonium Aconitum Conium Cajuput Uva Ursi Buchu Matica Ruta Senna Laurocerasus Belladonna Hyoscyamus Tabacum Seeds of Fruit. Nux Vom...
-Non-Officinal Drugs
The following Non-Officinal Drugs are extensively used in Medicine. Name. Part of Plant. Actsea Bacemosa. Root. Araroba .... ...
-Classified Tables Of The Pharmaceutical Preparations Of The British Pharmacopoeia
Aquae.-Anethi, Aurantii Floris, Camphorae, Carui, Chloroformi, Cinnamomi, Destillata, Foeniculi, Laurocerasi, Menthae Piperitae et Viridis, Pimentae, Rosae, Sambuci. Aceta.-Cantharidis, Scillae. ...
-Part III. General Therapeutics. Chapter I. Introduction: The Foundations Of Rational Treatment
The terms Therapeutics and Treatment, although, they may at first sight appear too simple to call for analysis, are found, on careful consideration, to include four different notions. These we must st...
-Introduction: The Foundations Of Rational Treatment. Continued
5. Therapeutics Therapeutics. The following are the four foundations of rational therapeutics. (1) Inasmuch as the organs act in obedience to natural forces in and around us; (2) since we possess t...
-Chapter II. Digestion.-The Mouth
I. Physiological Relations The process of digestion begins with the reception of food, more or less prepared by cooking. During its brief stay in the mouth, the food is triturated and mixed with mu...
-Digestion.-The Mouth. Continued
Other drugs act as specific sialagogues upon the terminations of the portio dura in the salivary glands, or on the cells themselves. Such are Jaborandi, and its active principle Pilocarpin, Tobacco, P...
-Bitters
It bourn Nectandraand Beberia Aloe Cinchona and Quinia Taraxacum Nux Vomica and Strychnia Calumba Quassia Aromatics. Rosmarinum Mentha Piperita MenthaViridis Cinnamomum Lava...
-Chapter III. Digestion.-The Stomach
I. Physiological Relations Gastric digestion is mainly effected by the gastric juice, an acid secretion which owes its solvent and chemical power to pepsin and hydrochloric acid. The gastric secret...
-Digestion.-The Stomach. Part 2
4. The circulation in the stomach is also so far under our control, as we have already seen. The many substances which stimulate the nerves also redden the surface of the mucous membrane, by dilating ...
-Digestion.-The Stomach. Part 3
In chronic dyspepsia the attacks are much less severe, but practically continuous. This often depends on other morbid states of the stomach such as cancer; or on disease of other organs, for instance,...
-Digestion.-The Stomach. Part 4
3. Treatment Of The Effects Treatment Of The Effects. When the process of indigestion is at an end, and prostration requires to be relieved, the therapeutist will avail himself of some of the many ...
-Chapter IV. Emetics And Vomiting
I. Physiological Relations Vomiting is a complex act, in which the respiratory muscles, the abdominal walls, the walls of the stomach, the sphincter of the cardiac orifice, and the oesophagus and p...
-Emetics And Vomiting. Continued
2. Defective vomiting may be said to occur when only attempts at retching ensue on the presence of direct or indirect stimulation of the centre. In the vast majority of cases, however, we have to deal...
-Synopsis Of Remedies Which Influence Vomiting
Emetics. Anti-Emetics. Direct. Indirect. Direct and Indirect. Anthemis Apomorphia Antimonium ...
-Chapter V. Digestion-The Duodenum
We are now in a position to follow the process of digestion in the duodenum. The other functions of the intestine will be considered in the next chapter. I. Physiological Relations The chyme pas...
-Measures Influencing Digestion In The Duodenum
Food. Direct Duodenal Stimulants. Indirect Duodenal Stimulants. Hepatic Stimulants. Pancreatised Foods Olive Oil Almon...
-Chapter VI. The Intestine
We now proceed to the consideration of therapeutical methods founded on a more complex physiological basis, namely, the actions and uses of purgatives and intestinal astringents. I. Physiological ...
-The Intestine. Part 2
a. Drastics.-These cause the vessels to dilate, and retard the blood current, so that the fluid and part even of the solid constituents of the blood escape into the walls and cavity of the bowel. In o...
-The Intestine. Part 3
b. Nervo-muscular Intestinal Sedatives.-The drugs which arrest the movements of the bowel, either directly or through the nerves, include Opium, Morphia, and Lead, which diminish peristalsis, and may ...
-The Intestine. Part 4
IV. Natural Recovery Diarrhoea is a striking instance of the first method of natural recovery-by removal of the cause. By this means not only is the bowel purged of irritant matters, but constipati...
-The Intestine. Part 5
'Muscular torpidity is also rationally treated with chola-gogues, and Rhubarb and Aloes act partly in this way. The saline cholagogues, such as Sulphate of Soda, and the many bitter mineral waters now...
-Anthelmintics
Vermifuges. Vermicides. Indirect Anthelmintics. Jalapa Scammonium Cambogia Filix Mas bantoninum O1. Terebintbinse Kusso ...
-Synopsis Of Substances Which Act Upon The Intestines
Drastics. Action.-Chiefly cause catarrh of mucous membrane; increase glandular secretions and peristalsis. Elaterium Croton oil Colocynth in excessive doses Gamboge Guaiacum Saline Purgatives...
-Chapter V11. The Liver
I. Physiological Relations The substances which enter the liver through the portal vein consist of the products of digestion in the widest sense, namely, proteids including leucin and tyrosin, suga...
-The Liver. Part 2
The direct effect of certain drugs upon the secretion of bile is unquestionable. Podophyllin, Rhubarb, Aloes, Colocynth, Colchicum, Jalap, Scammony, Ipecacuanha, Sulphate of Soda, Phosphate of Soda, a...
-The Liver. Part 3
If prophylaxis fail, and disorder be actually present, immediate treatment must be undertaken. The first step will be to remove, if possible, the causes of the disorder. A careful inquiry into the hab...
-Chapter VIII. The Blood
We will now suppose that the products of ahsorption and hepatic metaholism have entered the blood. The peculiar relations which the blood hears to the solid organs gives a special character to its pa...
-The Blood. Part 2
3. A small number of drugs are known to act directly upon the white corpuscles. Quinia reduces their number, and paralyses their movements; Veratria kills them (out of the body). All aromatic oils, re...
-The Blood. Part 3
V. Therapeutics The facts which we have reviewed under the four preceding heads are highly encouraging to the practical therapeutist. In plethora he will reduce the amount of food, increase the ...
-Synopsis Of Substances Which Act On The Blood
Substances which act on, or are decomposed in the Plasma. Substances which act on the White Corpuscles. Substances which act on the red Corpuscles. ...
-Chapter IX. Metabolism-The Action Of Medicines-Alteratives
We now pass on to consider the process of nutrition or metabolism, that is, the activity of the tissues, the development of force by protoplasm in the presence of blood. We shall find that this subjec...
-Metabolism-The Action Of Medicines-Alteratives. Part 2
6. The trophic centres are amenable to impressions carried in by their afferent fibres, and such of these fibres as originate in the surface of the body are thoroughly accessible, and ready to convey ...
-Metabolism-The Action Of Medicines-Alteratives. Part 3
Opposed to the alteratives are an important class of drugs which diminish metabolism. Alcohol has this action, apparently by being itself so readily oxydised in the tissues that it robs the cells, as ...
-Metabolism-The Action Of Medicines-Alteratives. Part 4
When an actual instance of metabolic disorder demands treatment, we must first attempt to discover its cause, and to remove it by the same measures which might have prevented it. Thus the cause of gou...
-Chapter X. The Circulatory System
I. Physiological Relations The function of the heart is to drive a certain amount of blood through the whole length of the circulatory system within a given time. In its flow through the small arte...
-The Circulatory System. Part 2
The capillaries effect the final distribution of blood to the tissues. Their soft protoplasmic walls, through which the plasma, the oxygen, and the corpuscles pass into the tissues, have irritability ...
-The Circulatory System. Part 3
The afferent nerves of the heart, which carry to the brain the impressions of common sensibility originating in the cardiac tissues, may be depressed by means of Opium, Chloral, Belladonna and its all...
-The Circulatory System. Part 4
III. Pathological Relations The complex circulatory apparatus is subject to many forms of derangement and disease, a few only of which require to be noticed for the purpose of illustrating the appl...
-The Circulatory System. Part 5
Removal of the cause is rarely practicable in heart disease. The opposite is the case in cardiac disorder. Treatment here consists in relieving dyspepsia, in restoring the condition of the blood, in s...
-Substances Which Act Upon The Circulatory System
Substances Stimulating Cardiac Centre. Digitalis Scilla Convallaria Belladonna (at first) Stramonium (at first) Hyoscyamus (at first) Tabacum (at first) Alcohol (at first) .Aether (at firs...
-Local Circulatory Stimulants
Eodum Camphora Arnica Alcohol (confined) Zether (confined) Chloral Hydras O1. Terebinth. Veratria Sinapis Cantharis Ammonia Metallic Salts All Aromatic Volatile Oil...
-Chapter XL. The Respiratory System
I. Physiological Relations The red corpuscle of the blood is the oxygenating or respiratory element of the body. The physical part of respiration is carried on by means of the chest and respiratory...
-The Respiratory System. Part 2
2. The Red Corpuscle The Red Corpuscle. The red corpuscle as the great medium of external and internal respiration, as well as the prime mover of the respiratory centre, is an important agent throu...
-The Respiratory System. Part 3
When we review the various measures classed under the 1st, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th preceding heads, we are enabled to re-arrange several of the most important of them into new groups with definite phar...
-The Respiratory System. Part 4
Whilst many of these anatomical changes are fortunately remediable, others are not so, and the efforts of the practitioner can only be directed to the relief of their symptoms, or, more correctly, the...
-V. Rational Treatment
The treatment of respiratory disorders if it is to be thoroughly rational, must be founded upon the considerations given in the four preceding sections. The student will understand that the treatment ...
-Substances Which Act Upon The Respiratory System
Stimulants of Respiratory Centre. Camphora (at first) Belladonna Stramonium Hyoscyamus Strychnia Tabacum (briefly) Quebracbo Acid. Hydrocyanic, (briefly) Physostigma (...
-Chapter XII. The Nervous System
The therapeutical relations of the nervous system are as extensive as those of the whole body itself. Pain, for example, is constantly associated with local disease, and many of the most distressing d...
-The Nervous System. Part 2
Consciousness.-This in a purely mental state, partly consisting of perceptions, and partly inseparably associated with the emotions, the intellect, and the will. Consciousness depends on the perfectne...
-The Nervous System. Part 3
c. All these measures act upon the peripheral structures. The trunks of the afferent nerves may also be affected so as to interfere with the convection of the impressions. Opium, and possibly other dr...
-The Nervous System. Part 4
The action of narcotics is very complex, extending from one extremity of the sensory side of the nervous system to the other, influencing also its motor side, and disturbing the sensory, motor, and me...
-The Nervous System. Part 5
5. Sleep is most commonly deficient or absent when it calls for treatment; very frequently disturbed; sometimes excessive. Pain is the common cause of insomnia, but sleep may be prevented or broken by...
-The Nervous System. Part 6
c. General Anodynes.-When pain is very severe, sleep impossible, and the whole system distressed and disordered, direct general anodynes are demanded. The most useful is Opium or Morphia, which may be...
-Substances Which Act On The Nervous System, Local Stimulants
Alcohol Aethor Chloroformum Ammonia (at first) Acid. Carbolic, (at first) Creasotum (at first) Oleum Terebinthinre Veratria (at first) Cantharis (at first) Potassa Caustica Argenti Nitras Plumbum Zinc...
-Chapter XIII. The Kidney
The position which the kidney occupies in the circle of the great physiological systems gives a special character to its diseases, and to the actions and uses of remedies in connection with it. The se...
-The Kidney. Part 2
(b) By dilating the renal arteries, so that the quantity of blood within them is increased, whilst the pressure in the arterial system generally, and the resistance in the renal veins, remain unchange...
-The Kidney. Part 3
Opposed to these renal stimulants are renal sedatives or depressants, which appear to diminish directly the activity of the renal cells, when they reach them through the blood. Morphia has this effect...
-The Kidney. Part 4
So many of the disorders of the urine are but expressions of derangement of the blood and of the great organic functions, that it is hardly necessary to say that natural recovery constantly occurs. Co...
-Synopsis Of Substances Which Act On The Kidney
A. Measures Which Act Upon The Renal Circulation. Measures which Increase the Volume of Urine through the Circulation : Cardio-Vascular Diuretics. Measu...
-Chapter XIV. The Body Heat, And Its Regulation : The Skin
I. Physiological Relations Heat is produced in every act, of vital energy; is distributed throughout the body; and is finally lost in the surrounding medium. In so-called cold-blooded animals, th...
-The Body Heat, And Its Regulation : The Skin. Part 2
3. The Sweat-glands: Diaphoretics, Sudorifics, Anhidrotics.-The function of perspiration is under our control in almost every portion of its complex mechanism. a. Measures which increase the amount...
-The Body Heat, And Its Regulation : The Skin. Part 3
III. Pathological Relations The mechanism concerned in the regulation of the body-heat is liable to disorder, when heat-forming or heat-losing organs are diseased. Elevation of the body temperature...
-The Body Heat, And Its Regulation : The Skin. Part 4
(a) Injury or disease of the nervous system, as a cause of pyrexia, is generally beyond treatment. If the temperature rise to a dangerous height, it must be treated by the refrigerating measures prese...
-Synopsis Of Substances Acting On The Body Heat
Antipyretics. Antiperiodics. refrigerants. Anhtdrotics. Antimonium Aoidum Salicyl. Salicin Benzoinum Storax Camphora N...
-Chapter XV . Therapeutical Processes Connected With The Surface Of The Body
The surface of the body is of great interest and importance to the therapeutist, because it is the region of objective impressions, where influences of every kind may be brought in contact with nerves...
-I. Water Baths
Name. Temperature. Action. Uses. Cold. 32 to 60o Cools blood in cutaneous vessels; stimulates heart, respirat...
-II. Vapour Baths
Name. Temperature. Action. Uses. Simple Vapour or Russian. 95 to 110 Much like the warm or hot bath, but slow...
-III. Air Baths
Name. Temperature. Action. Uses. Hot air, or Turkish. Up to 220&d...
-V. Complex Baths
Name. Temperature. Action. Uses. Mercurial and vapour. Sufficient to vaporise water and mercurial. Specific. ...
-The Treatment Of Wounds
1. Antiseptics prevent putrefaction in a wound by virtue of their action in arresting the growth of organisms, or destroying these or the chemical activity of certain substances which give rise to fer...
-Substances Which Act On The Pupil
Pupil Dilators : Mydriatics. Pupil Contractors : Myotics. Belladonna Atropia Physostigma Eserin Stramonium Hy...
-Substances Which Act Upon The Generative Organs
Substances which stimulate the non-gravid Uterus : Emmenagogues. Substances which stimulate the Gravid Uterus : Ecbolics : Oxytocics. Substances which depres...
-Appendix. Manuals
This Series has been projected to meet the demand of Medical Students and Practitioners for compact and authoritative Manuals, which shall embody the most recent discoveries, and present them to the r...
-For Students Of Medicine
Manuals for Students of Medicine. I.-Elements of Histology. By E. Klein, M.D., F.R.S., Joint-Lecturer on General Anatomy and Physiology in the Medical School of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, Londo...
-Clinical Manuals For Practitioners And Students Of Medicine. Complete Monographs On Special Subjects
The object of this Series is to present to the Practitioner and Student of Medicine original, concise, and complete monographs on all the principal subjects of Medicine and Surgery, both general and s...
-In Active Preparation
1.-Syphilis* By Jonathan Hutchinson, F.R.S., F.R.C.S., Consulting Surgeon to the London Hospital and to the Royal London Ophthalmic Hospital. 2.-Insanity, including Hysteria. By George H. Savage...
-The Book Of Health
A Systematic Treatise for the Professional and General Reader upon the Science and the Preservation of Health . 21 s. chap. Contents. 1. Introductory. By W. S. Savory, F.R.S. 2. Food and ...
-A Handbook Of Nursing
For the Home and for the Hospital. By Catherine J. Wood, Lady Superintendent of the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street. Cassell & Company's Complete Catalogue, containing particulars o...







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