Aurantii Cortex - Bitter-Orange Peel. - The dried outer part of the rind of the bitter orange, Citrus Bigaradia. From the ripe fruit imported from the south of Europe.

Characters. - Thin, of a dark orange colour, nearly free from the white inner part of the rind, having an aromatic bitter taste and fragrant odour.

Composition. - Orange peel contains 1 to 2 1/2 per cent. of volatile oil, oleum corticis aurantii, isomeric with oil of turpentine, C10Hl6, and a bitter crystalline principle, aurantiin or hesperidin.

Preparations.

1. Infusum Aurantii

Infusum Aurantii. 1 in 20. Dose, 1 to 2 fl.oz.

2. Infusum Aurantii Compositum

Infusum Aurantii Compositum. 1 in 40. Dose, 1 to 2 fl.oz.

3. Tinctura Aurantii

Tinctura Aurantii. 1 in 10. Dose, 1 to 2 fl.dr.

From Tinctura Aurantii is prepared: a. Syrupus Aurantii. - 1 of tincture in 8.

Tinctura Aurantii is also an ingredient of Mistura Ferri Aromatica and Tinctura Quiniae.

4. Vinum Aurantii

Vinum Aurantii. Orange wine made in Britain, and containing 12 per cent. of alcohol.

Vinum Aurantii is used in making Vinum Ferri Citratis and Vinum Quiniae.

Bitter-orange peel is also an ingredient of Spiritus Ar-moraceae Compositus, Tinctura Cinchonae Com-posita, and Infusum Gentianae Compositum, Mistura Gentianae, and Tinctura Gentianae Composita.

Aurantii Fructus - Bitter Orange. - The ripe fruit of Citrus Bigaradia. Imported from the south of Europe.

Preparation. Tinctura Aurantii Recentis. - 6 in 20. Dose, 1 to 2 fl.dr.

Aqua Aurantii Floris - Orange-flower Water. - Water distilled from the flowers of the bitter-orange tree, Citrus Bigaradia, and of the sweet-orange tree, Citrus aurantium. Prepared mostly in France.

Characters. - Nearly colourless, fragrant.

Composition. - Orange flowers yield an aromatic volatile oil, oleum neroli, and a trace of a bitter principle. Impurities. - Lead derived from the vessels in which it is imported; detected by H1S. Dose, 1/2 to 1 fl.oz.

Preparation. Syrupus Aurantii Floris. - Dose, 1 to 2 fl.dr.

Action And Uses

Orange is at once an aromatic and a bitter substance, and combines the action of these two classes of remedies, as described under Calumba and Caryophyllum respectively. It is extensively used as a highly agreeable flavouring agent in cookery, pharmacy, and the manufacture of liqueurs; and in these several ways may be turned to account therapeutically. It is but feebly bitter.

Limonis Cortex - Lemon Peel. - The outer part of the rind of the fresh fruit of Citrus Limonum. Lemons are imported from southern Europe.

Composition. - Lemon peel contains the officinal volatile oil, Oleum Limonis, C10H16 (isomeric with turpentine), and a bitter principle.

Preparations.

1. Oleum Limonis

Oleum Limonis. The oil expressed or distilled from the fresh peel. Pale yellow. Dose, 1 to 4 min. Oil of Lemon is an ingredient of Linimentum Potassii Iodidi cum Sapone and Spiritus Ammoniae Aromaticus.

2. Syrupus Limonis

Syrupus Limonis. 2 in 41, with 20 of Lemon Juice. Dose,

1 to 2 fl.dr.

3. Tinctura Limonis

Tinctura Limonis. 1 in 8. Dose, 1/2 to 2 fl.dr.

Lemon peel is also contained in Infusum Aurantii Compositum and Infusum Gentianae Compositum.

Action And Uses

The action and uses of lemon are the same as those of orange, the only difference of importance being in the flavour. See Aurantii Cortex.

Limonis Succus - Lemon Juice. - The freshly expressed juice of the ripe fruit of Citrus Limonum.

Characters. - A slightly turbid yellowish liquor, with a sharp acid taste, and grateful odour. Half a fluid ounce (one table-spoonful) contains 16.25 gr. of Citric Acid, and neutralises 23 gr. nearly of Bicarbonate of Potash, 20 gr. nearly of Bicarbonate of Soda, or 13 gr. fully of Carbonate of Ammonia.

Composition. - Lemon juice contains citric acid, both free and combined with potash and other bases, malic and phosphoric acids, etc.

Dose. - 1/2 to 4 fl.oz.

Preparations.

1. Syrupus Limonis

Syrupus Limonis. See Limonis Cortex.

2. Acidum Citricum, - See Acids, page 126.

Action And Uses. 1. Immediate Local Action And Uses

Lemon juice in the mouth and stomach has the same action as citric acid, and is used chiefly to relieve thirst and produce effervescing mixtures and drinks.

2. Action On The Blood, And Specific Action And Uses

Lemon juice enters the blood as alkaline citrates, potash salts, and phosphoric acid. Here the citrates are in part oxydised into carbonic acid and water. (See Acidum Citricum.) The potash and phosphoric acid probably act upon the red corpuscles, of which they are both important constituents.

Lemon juice is used with great success in the prevention and treatment of scurvy, a disease the exact nature of which is still obscure, but which is no doubt produced by the want of the juices of fresh vegetable and animal food. The citric acid, the potash, and the phosphoric acid have severally been credited with the beneficial effect by different authorities. Lemon juice has also been given in acute rheumatism, but is probably useful only in as far as it conveys alkalies into the blood and tissues.

3. Remote Local Action And Uses

Those, which are of great importance, are fully described under Citric Acid.

Belae Fructus - Bael Fruit. - The dried half-ripe fruit of Aegle Marmelos. From Malabar and Coromandel.

Characters. - Fruit roundish, about the size of a large orange, with a hard woody rind; usually imported in dried slices, or in fragments consisting of portions of the rind and adherent dried pulp and seeds. Rind about a line and a half thick, covered with a smooth pale-brown or greyish epidermis, and internally, as well as the dried pulp, brownish-orange or cherry-red. The moistened pulp is mucilaginous.

Composition. - Bael is believed to contain a kind of tannic acid, but has not been thoroughly analysed.

Preparation. Extractum Belae Liquidum. - 1 in 1. Dose, 1 to 2 fl.dr.

Action And Uses

In the fresh state, Indian bael is a pleasant refreshing fruit, with astringent and refrigerant properties, which render it valuable in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery. As imparted into this country in hard portions of rind and dried pulp it is probably useless; but a liquid extract made from the fresh fruit appears to produce its specific effects. It is seldom employed out of India.

Byttneriaceae. Oleum Theobromae - Oil, of Theobroma.-Synonym: Cacao Butter. A concrete oil obtained by-expression and heat from the ground seeds of Theo-broma cacao, a small tree, a native of Demerara and Mexico.

Characters. - Of the consistency of tallow; colour yellowish, odour resembling that of chocolate; taste bland and agreeable; fracture clean, presenting no appearance of foreign matter. Does not become rancid from exposure to the air. Melts at 95°. The seeds also contain theobromin. See Caffein, page 270.

Composition. - Oil of theobroma constitutes from 30 to 50 per cent, of the cacao bean. It consists chiefly of stearin with a little olein.

Preparations.

All the suppositories.

Action And Uses

Cacao butter serves as a vehicle for more active substances in the form of suppositories. The action of theobromin is the same as that of caffein. See page 271.