The bark of Euonymus atropurpureus.

Characters. - Quilled or curved pieces; ash-grey with blackish patches without; whitish within; nearly inodorous; sweetish, somewhat bitter, and acrid.

Composition. - Euonyrnus contains euonymin. an un-crystallisable intensely bitter principle, various resins, and & fixed oil.

Non-officinal Preparations.

Extractum Euonymi (U. S. P). - Dose, 1 to 5 gr. Euonymin. - An eclectic preparation, consisting of the resins and fixed oil. Dose, 1 to 5 gr.

Action And Uses

Euonymin is an hepatic stimulant, direct cholagogue, and mild cathartic; the latter effect being but little marked unless other purgatives be combined. It is used in constipation and hepatic derangements.

Rhamnaceĉ. Rhamni Succus - Buckthorn Juice. - The recently expressed juice of the ripe berries of common Buckthorn, Rhamnus catharticus, a native of Britain.

Characters. - Deep red by reflected, green by transmitted, light.

Composition. - Buckthorn juice contains an active principle, rhamnicin, probably identical with cathartic acid, the purgative glucoside of senna and rhubarb.

Preparation. Syrupus Rhamni. - Dose, 1 fl.dr.

Action And Uses

Buckthorn is an active cathartic, naturally resembling senna and rhubarb. It is very seldom employed.

Rhamnus Frangula. (Not Officinal.) - The bark of the Rhamnus frangula, or Black Alder. Imported from Holland.

Characters. - Quills half a line thick, with a warty greyish-brown exterior; nearly inodorous; taste sweetish bitter.

Composition. - Black Alder contains an active crystalline principle, emodin, also found in Rheum (see page 317).

Non-officinal Preparations.

A Fluid Extract, and Lozenges. Pose. - 1 to 4 fl.dr. of the former.

Action And Uses

Rhamnus frangula is a certain and pleasant aperient, without griping or severe cathartic action, used in chronic constipation, and especially suitable for children.

Rhamnus Purshiana. (Not Officinal.) - The bark of Cascara sagrada, or Rhamnus purshiana. From the North Pacific coast.

Composition. - A crystalline and various resinoid bodies have been obtained from cascara, which requires to be further investigated.

Non-officinal Preparations.

A Fluid Extract, and a Cordial.

Action And Uses

Cascara sagrada is a tonic and stomachic in small doses, aperient in large doses, and cathartic if freely given. It is useful in the same class of cases as the Ehamnus frangula.