External

The liniment is used as a counter-irritant in numerous conditions, such as chronic joint disease, chronic rheumatism, etc., and is often rubbed on the chest in bronchitis. Ammonia is a very uncertain vesicant. Weak solutions of it are often applied to the bites of insects. Aqua ammoniae is very valuable when held to the nose of any one who has fainted, for it almost instantly reflexly produces its stimulating effect on the heart and respiration.

Internal

Ammonia in some form may be given before meals as a gastric stimulant in dyspepsia. Sal volatile {see below) is often used for this purpose, and also for its general stimulating effect on the cardiac, respiratory and spinal systems, especially in sudden collapse from any cause. For collapse it may be used intravenously. Ammonia has been injected subcutaneously in cases of snake-bite, but it almost invariably produces a slough.

3. Ammonii Carbonas. - Ammonium Carbonate, Nh4hco3 - Nh4nh2co2 = 156.77. Synonyms. - Bakers' Ammonia. Hartshorn. Sal Volatile.

Source

A mixture of Ammonium Sulphate or Chloride and Calcium Carbonate is subjected to sublimation and resublimation. 4Nh4c1 + 2CaCo3 = 2CaC12 + Nh4hco3 - Nh4nh2co2 + Nh3 + 2H2O.

Characters

White, hard, translucent, striated masses, having a strongly ammoniacal odor without empyreuma, and a sharp saline taste. On exposure to the air it loses both Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide, becoming opaque, and is finally converted into friable, porous lumps, or a white powder. Solubility. - Slowly but completely in 5 parts of water.

Impurities

Sulphates and chlorides.

Dose, 2 to 15 gr.; .12 to 1.00 gm. (Stimulant or expectorant.)

Preparation

Spiritus Ammoniae Aromaticus

Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia. Ammonium Carbonate, 34; Ammonia Water, 90; Oil of Nutmeg, 1; Oil of Lemon, 10; Alcohol, 700; Oil of Lavender Flowers, I; water to make 1000. Sp. gr. about 0.905.

Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia is used in making Tinctura Guaiaci Am-moniata and Tinctura Valerianae Ammoniata.

Dose, 1/2 to 2 fl. dr. 2. to 8. c.c.

Action and Therapeutics of Ammonium Carbonate

The external and internal actions of the carbonate are the same as those of Aqua Ammoniae. It is not used externally, but Spiritus Ammonias Aromaticus is inhaled for its reflex effects, is taken as a gastric stimulant and carminative in dyspepsia, and as a cardiac and general stimulant in syncope, etc. The carbonate is, in addition, an excellent expectorant, stimulating the respiratory movements, and by its general stimulating effect aiding the expulsion of thick mucus. It is most used for bronchitis in children and the aged. It is an emetic acting directly on the stomach.

Toxicology

Symptoms

Liquor Ammoniae and the Carbonate produce symptoms like other alkalies, but are more corrosive. The air-passages are often inflamed, and the inhalation of the vapor has been known to kill from this cause.

Treatment as for other alkalies. (See p. 139.)