They thus became rivals of the Portuguese and of one another. The Dutch were at first the more successful. They established themselves in India, in the East Indian Islands, the Moluccas and the Sunda Islands; they drove the Portuguese out, and took possession of the entire trade with India, the East Indies, Japan, and China. They also established colonies in the Cape, and in 1658 took Ceylon from the Portuguese. Several of the West Indian Islands, and part of the north-east of South America, fell into their hands. The commerce of all these colonies and countries flowed into Amsterdam, which thus supplanted Antwerp and Lisbon as the European emporium of Indian trade.

Meanwhile the English, who had met with less success, had nevertheless founded colonies in Calicut, Madras, Masulipatam, Calcutta, and Bencoolen, and had driven the Spaniards from Jamaica, Barbados, and other of the West Indian Islands. In 1600 the first English East Indian Company was formed which built forts in Java, Amboyna, and Banda. At first this company shared the spice trade, but eventually it was driven from the islands by the Dutch, who destroyed all spice trees but those on the island of Amboyna. The English were thus restricted to the coasts of India, where they competed successfully with the Portuguese. After the cessation of the Company's charter in 1833 trade rapidly increased. Cotton, sugar, tobacco, tea, coffee, and cinchona were introduced. Singapore, which had become a British possession in 1819, became, and still remains, the centre of East Indian trade. North America had already been colonised; here and in the West Indian Islands tobacco, allspice, cocoa, indigo, etc, had been introduced, and their cultivation had rapidly extended.

Drug Routes

Foreign drugs reach the London market chiefly by the following routes:

I. Central European. - From Reval and Riga (Russian); from Hamburg and Bremen (German); from Amsterdam and Rotterdam (Dutch and German); from Antwerp (Belgian and Dutch); from Dieppe, Boulogne, Havre, and Bordeaux (French); in all cases direct to London.

II. Mediterranean. - From Lisbon (Portuguese); from Vigo, Seville, Malaga, Valencia, and Barcelona (Spanish); from Marseilles (French); from Genoa, Leghorn, and Bari (Italian); from Messina, Palermo, and Catania (Sicilian); from Malta; from Salonica, Constantinople, Smyrna, Alexandretta, Jaffa, Beyrout (Turkish); from Suez, Tripoli, Tangiers, Algiers (African); either direct to London or often (from the Eastern Mediterranean) via Trieste or via Marseilles.

III. North-West African. - From Rabat, Mazagan, Saffi, Mogadore, Bathurst to London, Liverpool, or Southampton. '

IV. West-Central African. - From Sierra Leone, Bonny, Lagos, San Thome, and Benguela to Liverpool.

V. South African. - From Cape Town, Mossel Bay, Port Elizabeth, East London, Natal, and Delagoa Bay to Southampton and Liverpool.

VI. East-Central African. - From Beira, Chinde, Quilimane, Mozambique, Zanzibar, Mombasa to London (often via Hamburg); from Mauritius, Reunion, Madagascar, and Seychelles to Liverpool.

VII. Red Sea, Arabian, and Persian. - From Suakin, Massowah, Aden, Bunder-Abbas, Bushire, Bussorah, and Bagdad to London.

VIII. Indian. - From Karachi, Bombay, Mangalore, Calicut,

Cochin, Aleppy, Colombo, Tuticorin, Madras, Calcutta, and Rangoon to London.

IX. Malayan. - From the various islands via Singapore and Penang to London; from Batavia via Amsterdam to London; from Saigon via Marseilles to London.

X. Chinese. - From Shanghai and Hong Kong, often via Havre or Hamburg, to London.

XL Japanese

From Nagasaki, Kobe, and Yokohama to London.

XII. North American. - From Quebec, Montreal, Boston, New York, Baltimore, Newport, New Orleans, and San Francisco to Liverpool, London, and Southampton, sometimes via Havre and Cherbourg.

XIII. Central American. - From Greytown and Belize to Liverpool and London, sometimes via Hamburg.

XIV. West Indian. - From, the British islands to Liverpool Bristol, and Southampton; from the Dutch islands to London via Amsterdam.

XV. South American. - From La Guayra, Savanilla, Cartagena, and Maranham to Liverpool; from Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio Janeiro, and Buenos Ayres to London and Liverpool; from Montevideo to Southampton; from Valparaiso, Santiago, Mollendo, Truxillo, and Guayaquil to Liverpool.

XVI. Australian. - From Brisbane, Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, and Perth to London; from Tasmania via Melbourne.

XVII. New Zealand. - From Auckland and Wellington to London.

Drug Packages

The various ways of packing drugs for exportation form an extremely interesting study, as may be gathered from the following examples: -

Aloes is exported from the West Indies, from East Africa, and from Cape Colony. That from the Dutch West Indian Islands usually arrives in wooden cases in which bottled spirits have been exported (compare ' Aloes'), but formerly West Indian aloes was frequently poured while still soft into empty gourds (fig. 1, a), which were then closed with a piece of cloth and packed in barrels; such gourd aloes is still occasionally seen. Socotrine aloes is commonly sent from East Africa in a pasty or semi-solid condition in kegs or barrels. Zanzibar aloes is filled while soft into goat-skins, which are afterwards packed in cases.

Cassia fistula is exported from Java in baskets made of plaited split cane (fig. 1, b). China root, much used in China, but now almost obsolete in Europe, and galangal root (fig. 2, e) arrive in mats made of plaited bast (fig. 1, c); a similar covering protects the cases of cassia bark and cassia buds (fig. 3, a, b, c), all of which are exported from China. Cloves are usually sent from Zanzibar in mats made from interlaced strips of coconut leaves (fig. 3, d).

' Seron ' is the name generally given to packages made of raw hide, such as those in which Calisaya cinchona bark is still occasionally imported (fig. 2, a, f); a similar protection is afforded to bales of Honduras sarsaparilla (fig. 2, b), the ends of which are covered with raw hide laced with strips of the same material. Jamaica and Lima sarsaparilla are made into large disc-shaped bales bound round with iron wire, while the native Jamaica drug is packed loose in bales.