Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum). The rhizome and roots of Caulophyllum thalictroides (Linne), Michaux (N.O. Berberideoe), an herbaceous plant of the United States. Horizontal, about 10 cm. long and 6 to 12 m. thick, irregular, somewhat tortuous and branched, greyish brown; on the upper surface, short knotty branches and cup-shaped depressions; on the under surface, numerous roots about 10 cm. long and 6 to 10 mm. thick. Section whitish with numerous narrow, woody wedges surrounding a large, starchy pith. Taste sweetish, somewhat acrid. Contains an alkaloid, methylcytisine (C12H16ON2 formerly designated caulophylline), similar in action to cytisine, but of only one-tenth the toxicity, two saponins (caulosaponin and caulophyllosaponin), resin, phyto-sterol, and fat (Power and Sal way, 1913). Used as a diuretic, emmenagogue, and vermifuge.

Leptandra (Culver's Root, Black Root)

The rhizome and roots of Veronica virginica, Linne (Leptandra virginica, Nuttall, N.O. Scrophularineoe), a tall perennial herb abundant in eastern and central North America. Rhizome horizontal or oblique, dark greyish-brown, hard and woody, 10 to 15 cm. long and about 5 mm. thick; terminated by the remains of the aerial stem and bearing such remains at distant intervals; on the upper surface small, brown cataphyllary leaves. Roots, numerous, wiry. Transverse section of the rhizome exhibits a narrow, dark cortex, a paler ring of wood of about equal thickness and a large dark pith; sometimes hollow in the centre; no odour; taste, unpleasantly bitter and slightly acrid, Contains 3.4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, mannitol, glucose, verosterol, cinnamic and p-methoxycinnamic acids in the form of esters. 'Leptandrin' is an indefinite mixture obtained by pouring a concentrated tincture with water, washing and drying. Used as a cholagogue. The fresh rhizome is violently cathartic and emetic, but these properties disappear on drying and keeping.