Various forms of hemp are sold and used in the East as narcotic stimulants. The dried plant is sold in Calcutta for smoking, and is called Gunjah. Churrus is the resinous exudation with scrapings of the leaves, and Hashish is an Arabian preparation. The U.S. P. now recognizes the dried flowering tops of two varieties of the plant, cannabis sativa and indica.

Physiological Actions

Cannabis indica in full doses causes a mental state of joyous exhilaration. The subject may fall into a revery, while beautiful visions pass before the eyes, or he may laugh loudly and give other manifestations of being in an ecstatic state. The pupils dilate and the pulse-rate rises. Partial anaesthesia, local spasms, and convulsions may be noticed. After the first stage the subject falls into a heavy sleep. The Hindoos are said to induce a state of catalepsy by the use of hemp.

It is not an acute poison, and does not endanger life, even when the symptoms produced by it are of an alarming character. There are not the unpleasant after-effects of opium. The stomach is not affected, nor is there constipation. The urine, rather than decreasing, is increased by this drug.

It has been used to some extent in the treatment of insanity, and, aside from that, for the relief of pain and as a hypnotic. Various quack medicines advertised as "pain killers" contain cannabis.

The action of the different preparations is variable, and it is supposed that much of the supply loses its strength during the ocean voyage, and becomes inert.


Tinctura Cannabis. Tincture Of Cannabis

Strength, 10%. Average dose,  xii.-0.75 mil.

Fluidextractum Cannabis, Fluidextract Of Cannabis

Average dose,  iss.-0.1 mil.