Emulsions

Liquid preparations in which oleaginous substances are suspended in a minutely divided state, by the aid of gummy or viscid substances, in water. Four official.

Elixirs are aromatic sweetened vehicles containing alcohol, syrup, and water, with various drugs. They are very popular in the United States and are typical of the American method of exhibiting drugs. Two official.

Decoctions

Made by boiling the drug in water. A method used for hard fibrous or wood plants. They are made in a strength of 5% unless otherwise directed. None official.

Infusions

Made by treating a vegetable drug with either hot or cold water without boiling. Two official. The strength is the same as that of decoctions.

Solutions

Preparations of non-volatile drugs dissolved in water. Twenty-five official.

Waters

Solutions of volatile principles dissolved in water. Eighteen official.

Tinctures

In the Eighth Decennial Revision of the Pharmacopoeia, the proportion of drug to the finished tincture had been made to conform to the standard adopted at the International Conference, Brussels, 1902, either ten or twenty per cent. by volume. There are, however, exceptions to this general rule. There are fifty-four official tinctures.

Fluidextracts

Concentrated tinctures or alcoholic extracts of definite strength. One mil of a fluid-extract represents 1 gramme of the drug; or, 1 minim represents 1 grain, approximately. Forty-nine official.

Spirits

Solutions of volatile substances in alcohol. Fifteen official.

Wines

Preparations made with a basis of wine. None official.

Mixtures

Watery preparations holding an insoluble substance, finely subdivided, in suspension. There are two official mixtures.

Vinegars

Preparations made with dilute acetic acid. One official.

Oleates

Preparations made with oleic acid. One official.

Oleoresins

Preparations containing a mixture of natural oils and resins extracted from vegetable substances by the action of acetone. They are the most concentrated of liquid preparations. Six official.

Glycerites

Preparations made with a basis of glycerin. Five official.

Syrups

Preparations made with sugar and water, sometimes containing alcohol. Simple syrup is sugar and water. Twenty-two official.

Mucilages

Preparations of soluble gummy substances dissolved in water. They spoil very quickly. Two official.

Liniments

Preparations for external application with friction. They have an oily or soapy character. Eight official.