Alcohol. Alcohol

Contains 94.9 % by volume, 92.3 % by weight, of pure ethyl alcohol with 7.7 of water.

Alcohol Dehydratum. Dehydrated Alcohol

Alcohol Absolutum. U. S. P., viii.

Made from alcohol by a lengthy chemical process. It consists of not less than 99% by weight of alcohol, and is not kept for sale but used only for pharmaceutical purposes.

Spiritus Tenuior. Proof Spirit. Not Official

Equal parts of alcohol and water, or, strictly speaking, 49 per cent. alcohol.

Alcohol Dilutum. Diluted Alcohol

41 % by weight, of alcohol, 48.6 % by volume. Alcoholic Beverages.

Spiritus Frumenti. (U. S. P., viii. Dismissed from U. S. P., ix.) Whisky

Made in the United States from rye and corn, in Scotland from barley, and in Ireland from potatoes.

It has from 44 to 50 per cent by weight of ethyl alcohol (by volume 50 to 56 per cent.), and contains ethers which are developed in the course of its fermentation; and, even in the best varieties, some traces of fusel oil. Whisky should be at least two years old before it is used.

The use of alcoholic beverages as medicinal agents is being rapidly discontinued, and if whisky is ordered in medical treatment the dosage is small and concentrated.

Spiritus Vini Gallici. (U. S. P., viii. Dismissed from U.S.P., ix.) Brandy

Brandy should be distilled from grapes, but it is also made artificially. It has about the same percentage of alcohol as whisky. It may be either pale or dark; in the former case it is colored by the cask, in the latter it contains caramel. It should be at least four years old. Brandy has a more sedative action on the stomach than whisky, and is preferable where there is any tendency to diarrhoea, as it is slightly constipating, containing a little tannin. Both brandy and whisky are more easily taken, as medicines, if poured over a small glassful of cracked ice; or they may be diluted with carbonated or seltzer water more acceptably than with plain water. Giving them in milk very often causes patients to take a dislike to the milk. They are both used hypodermically, and for this purpose should always be filtered.

Rum. Not Official

Made by the distillation of fermented molasses.

Gin. Not Official

Distilled from rye or barley, and flavored with juniper berries. If it is pure it is an efficient diuretic, owing to the oil of juniper, but it is rarely pure.