Active Ingredients. - I am not acquainted with any accurate analysis of the oil, which was introduced to the notice of the English profession either by Dr. Henderson, of Glasgow,1 in 1865, or by the late Dr. E. Miller, of the same city, at an earlier date. At any rate Dr. Henderson mentioned that it was in use among the natives of India as a remedy for gonorrhoea; and in the appendix to the Pharmacopoeia of India we find it stated that the wood of white sandal yields about 2.5 per cent. of the oil, which is of a pale yellow color,2 and has a resinous taste and a sweet peculiar smell, best appreciated by rubbing a few drops on the warm hand.

1 Glasgow Med. Jour., April, 1865.

2 (Oleum Santaliflavum, not Oleum Santali flavi, as often seen. The oil is yellow, sot the plant.)

Physiological Action. - On this subject no accurate knowledge exists; but the following remarks may be of interest. They were communicated to the Practitioner by Mr. Robert Park, of Great Stanmore:1 "Its physiological effect is generally to constringe all the mucous membranes of the body. Thus the immediate effect of a dose of it is to cause dryness of the fauces and thirst. During its digestion and absorption this thirst is kept up and intensified in some cases; in all, if a large dose be given (i. e., gr. xv. to xx.), and in many, with a merely legitimate dose, it produces a feeling of ' drawing together of the bowels,' sometimes verging on colic. Its action is somewhat more powerfully felt in the kidneys. At a period varying from two to three hours after it has been taken, a sense of fulness is experienced in both (renal) regions. This sense of fulness, or weight, or tension, lasts for a period varying from ten to twenty minutes."

Therapeutic Action. - There is a good deal of concurrent evidence to show that yellow sandal oil is a powerful remedy for gonorrhoea. The principal authorities are Dr. Henderson,2 Mr. Berkley Hill,3 Dr. Purdon, of Belfast,4 Dr. H. W. Beach,5 Mr. Robert Park (already mentioned), and Dr. G. Pridie.6 Mr. Park thus sums up the result of a very considerable experience of his own on this subject: "The cases in which it is most efficacious are not those of sickly patients with thin muco-aque-ous discharges, but those of full plethoric subjects with thick purulent discharge, and even considerable scalding. Given in a case of this kind as soon as possible after the appearance of the discharge, the effect is simply very gratifying both to patient and doctor. The discharge disappears, and the scalding is no more felt; and if the medicine be continued and collateral treatment attended to, in from two to five days the cure is complete; that is to say, there will have been no discharge seen for twenty-four hours, and there is no pain or abnormal symptom whatever. The patient must not be dismissed now, however, without a caution to abstain rigidly from all stimulants for at least a week, nor must he within a similar period take a purge, else he will assuredly bring back the discharge; then this redeveloped discharge is, for some reason I have never been able to fathom, more difficult to deal with, nor have I been able to find any attempt at explanation in the works of either Cullerier, Ricord, Lancereaux, or any of our own authorities. ... I will merely add that complications are to be treated separately, though the exhibition of the oil is by no means contra-indicated by the presence of orchitis, prostatis, or phymosis. It may be given perfectly well while the appropriate treatment for each of these is being carried out. To this rule there is one exception, viz., in orchitis. If it be requisite, as it very often is, to give a purge, let it be given at once, and before the oil is administered; as purges and stimulants (including coffee and, I strongly suspect, tea also) are contra-indicated during its administration. I have never once, however, seen any of the above-mentioned complications occur during a course of the oil, - I mean idiopathically."

1Practitioner, 1869, vol. ii., p. 260. 2 Loc. cit.

3 Brit. Med. Journ., July 6, 1867.

4 Med. Mirror, Sept. 1866.

5Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, Nov., 1868.

6 Quoted in Appendix to "Pharmacopoeia of India."

Preparations and Dose. - (Not officinal.) The oil itself should be administered in mucilage. Authorities differ as to the dose, some recommending 20 minims, some 30 or 40. On the other hand, Mr. Park, whose knowledge of the remedy seems very practical, thinks that larger doses than 5 minims are useless and even injurious; but this quantity should be given as often as every four hours. (Phillips.) The editor has used the yellow oil of sandal since 1866, at a time when it was not found in the general drug trade, and cost from two and a half to three dollars an ounce. Of late years it has greatly suffered in reputation in this country in consequence of the great difficulty of getting a pure article. Most of it is adulterated with oil of cedar, a body of little commercial importance until brought into use as an adulterant. The present New York market price of sandal oil is from about six to sixteen dollars a pound, depending on the amount of cedar oil and turpentine that the purchaser is willing to include in the weight. Under these circumstances it is manifestly unreliable in practice, and is very properly being abandoned. Its principal use at present, we believe, is in the form of proprietary capsules and pastes sold direct to the consumer who hopes to "cure himself" without the aid of a physician. The writer has used it very little for the last few years, having obtained better results in the treatment of gonorrhoea with other drugs (notably Cannabis sativavar. Americana and corrosive sublimate) than he has ever had with sandal, even when at its best.